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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS THERAPY - Psychotherapy a catchall term for therapies; treatment of psychological disorders  Freud credited for psychotherapy. One of his colleagues happened to be treating a woman who had paralysis of her arm. He noticed that once this woman started talking about her emotional experiences, her physical symptoms started disappearing. Freud took this patient on. THREE MAIN CATEGORIES OF PSYCHOTHERAPY: 1) Insight Therapies (“Talking Therapies”)  Looks as though patient and therapist are just talking back 
 and forth  Therapist trained to know what questions to ask, allows them 
 to gain insight into patient problems.  MAIN GOAL: have the patient come to a realization themselves with the guidance of the therapist as to what their problem is, 
 and trying to help them come up with a solution.  EXAMPLES: Psychoanalysis, marriage therapy, family 
 therapy, client-centered therapy
 2) Behaviour Therapies (based on learning principles)  Classical conditioning and operant conditioning used to help patients unlearn a maladaptive behaviour 
 o Concentrate on getting rid of maladaptive symptom 3) Biomedical Therapies  Change a person‟s biological functioning
  EXAMPLES: Medication, electroconvulsive shock therapy
 o Remember, medication has to be prescribed by psychiatrists, not psychologists, because psychologists can‟t prescribe medication - Which is best to use?  A lot of the time there isn‟t a „better one; however, some disorders respond better to certain types of therapy than others - Many people who see therapists don‟t have a specific psychological disorder- could just need someone to talk to - Many clinical psychologists tend to use an eclectic approach  Very often, clinicians use different techniques that they borrow from different therapeutic orientations (might do behaviour therapy but incorporate some of the techniques from insight therapy)  Therapy is not a miracle cure. If patient is not motivated to change, therapy will not be effective PSYCHOANALYSIS - Developed by Freud, derived from his Psychoanalytic theory of personality  Psychoanalysis is something that is not used often today
  Psychoanalysis requires a lot of commitment on the part of the patient and the therapist
  To be a qualified psychoanalyst, you must have undergone psychoanalysis yourself! The rationale is that if you have any hang-ups yourself, you won‟t be able to adequately able to treat people, because you will project your problems on to them - Objective is to uncover the cause of the problem by retracing the stages of psychosexual development  Brings the problem to consciousness, helps the patient gain insight, and helps the patient re-experience repressed emotions  They argue that they can‟t cure you unless they discover the underlying cause of the behaviour. Must delve into the unconscious to do that. Techniques 1) Free-Association  Tap the unconscious and make it more likely for repressed thoughts to be uncovered  Read a list of words to you, tell me the first thing that comes to mind when I say a word 2) Dream Analysis  Dreams the window to the unconscious  Dreams can be subdivided into 2 levels: a) Manifest Content; what the dream seems to be about b) Latent Content; the unconscious, underlying meaning of the dream because dreams are symbolic; more 
 important part  EXAMPLE; Dream about a male stranger who stole her car 
 and got killed in an accident o Analyst uncovered latent meaning: The unknown man is a symbol for your husband, whom you don‟t really understand or know all that well. Stealing the car symbolizes that the husband often took advantage of her. His being kills means she was angry with her husband for his manipulative behaviour 3) Transference  The patient unconsciously transfers conflictual feelings about 
 significant others onto the analyst  Way the patient interacts with the analyst is supposedly a 
 good clue as to how the patient feels toward the significant 
 person  Sitting out of patients site increases likelihood of transference 4) Interpretation  Analyst is doing the interpretation  Analyst feels they can interpret for the patient what the 
 problem is; this takes a long time (often years)  When they feel the patient is ready to accept their 
 interpretation that‟s when they present it to the patient. Once patient has insight into problem, they can re-experience the emotions from the time - Many aspects of psychoanalysis are very subjective. Can‟t prove whether interpretations are correct or not - Psychoanalysts (and other therapists from other orientations) can use other methods, called projective tests - Projective Tests used to get at what is going on in the unconscious  Two types of projective tests: 1) Rorschach Inkblot Test  Traditionally used to study the unconscious, now used also to assess person‟s personality  Gave inkblots to people known to have different psychological disorders and he discovered that if you have a certain psychological disorder you are more likely to interpret in a specific way  10 inkblots
 o Not reliable or valid; however those people who use it say they can learn so much about heir patients on basis of inkblot tests 2) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  Projecting your unconscious interpretations onto a vague stimulus  Stimuli are pictures
  Person asked to tell a story about what they see BRIEF PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY (INTERPERSONAL THERAPY) - 25 sessions - Focus is on specific issues - Current social problems - Helps to develop new behaviours BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES - Based on learning principles ASSUMPTIONS - Maladaptive behaviours involve „faulty learning‟ on associations and therapy helps to „unlearn‟ these associations  It is not necessary to uncover the underlying cause USE OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (In Behaviour Therapy) 1) Exposure Therapy  Expose someone to the phobic stimulus that is either real or imagined  More practical to expose a patient to an imaginative stimulus a) Systematic Desensitization (to treat phobias)  Therapy attempts to make the individual less sensitive to the phobic stimulus  Goes about it in a step-by-step procedure  Wolpe (1958)-
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