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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Thinking This note includes the prof's lecture slides, and has accompanying notes typed up beside it. It very neat and compact, has highlights, stars and arrows relating lecture slides to related notes given in class.

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PSYC 1010
Vivienne Monty

Intro+ TheCognitive Revolution Tuesday, November 23, 2010 9:59 AM Textbooks - listening to authority i.e.Santa Claus - we knew he existed because our parents (authority) tells us so. Prior to Cognitive Revolution in the 1950s, everything was based on BEHAVIOURS. They asked - what is consciousness? They study schemas -> a way we conceptualize something in our heads. Schemascome naturally. DeductiveReasoning Tuesday, November 23, 2010 10:01 AM Deductive reasoning -> top-down. General -> more specific. All cognitions are not necessarily intelligent -> premise is false, therefore conclusion is false. Many different versions of deductive reasoning. Invalid conclusion to say that some A's are C's We choose to believe what we like, and choose not to believe what we don'tlike. Biases influence the way we think on an unconscious level. ConfirmationBias+ Inductive Reasoning Tuesday, November 23, 2010 10:02 AM We believe something even in the face of conflicting information. i.e.Depressed people -> a lot easier to rejectpositive information, and accept negative information about themselves. -> They will continue to be depressed. We have a tendency to take in information that we agree with! Bottom-up Specific->General i.e.Sherlock Holmes! Specificclues -> general conclusion Useful skill -> used for generalizations! Relationshipsbetween numbers and words are made with inductive reasoning. ProblemSolving We have mental sets/rules that help us problem solve, but they can hinderus as well. Tuesday, November 23, 2010 10:02 AM Clarification of the issue at hand ProblemSolving -> taking it piece by piece! Clarify initial state and end state. We have a tendency to think of an objectfor only one use. i.e.hammer for hammering -> if you need something to hammer and you
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