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Lecture 2

LECTURE 2 NOTES-Sept 20th Methodology, AJ.pdf

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC1010 H Lecture Notes-September 20 , 2013 th **These notes are not to be used as a substitute for attending the lecture. Missing information is not the responsibility of the TA** *UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PARTICIPANT POOL (URPP)* -Earn 4% of your final PSYC 1010 grade by participating in psychology research -has to be 3 hours in the fall term and 3 hours in the winter term -Go to the URPP website -Check website for more information th -need to earn 6 credits prior to April 4 (3 credits per term) to receive your full 4%! METHODOLOGY -4 types of methods 1. Survey Method -set of written questions that are used to determines people’s attitudes, beliefs and behaviours Advantages-survey is anonymous therefore people more comfortable in giving answers, cheap and fast, more efficient process than meeting each person face to face, Disadvantages-misinterpretations of questions (as researcher need to make questions as clear as possible), people may not be honest and experimenter may not know, only certain options on questionnaire (not giving a true representation of that person’s behaviour or their beliefs) Pilot study: a mini run through of the real full-fledged study, only need a small group, give them survey and get their feedback to make sure full study/experiment runs smoothly -in order to generalize from the sample to the population the sample must be representative of the population -the opposite of the word representative is the word biased -ex. Studying smoking habits of teenagers in Canada but impossible to study every Canadian teenager but instead if you use proper procedures such as picking a sample then it can represent the population -you want to be confident as a researcher that the results you find from the sample will generalize to the entire population -in order to generalize, the sample must be representative of the population, a mini version of the population -different age ranges, city and rural areas, different backgrounds -one way to ensure sample is representative of the population is to use random sampling where each person in the population (of interest, ex. Canadian teenagers) has an equal chance of being picked for the sample -if you just want to know smoking attitudes of people just from PSYC 1010 then that is your population, randomly take 25 people from the class (each person puts their name in a hat and 25 names are pulled out) then that is your random sample -picking names randomly from a phone book would be biased because not everyone is listed in a phonebook, many people don’t have landlines anymore 2. Naturalistic Observation -observing people without them knowing that they’re being observed -method used when you’re interested in describing or measuring people’s behaviour as they are naturally behaving in a natural setting -this method is good if you want to sit back and measure or record behaviour -watching people behaving as they would naturally or normally behaviour Advantages-you can generalize to other settings, people don’t know they are being watched so they act natural Disadvantages-you don’t know the cause of the behaviour, you can only report on what you see which limits youEx. Separation anxiety and infants, have mom leave infant and see how they react, infant looks like it’s going to cry but in fact infant just has gas! (infant is not crying because mom left) -time consuming, have no control over the situation, don’t want subject reactivity (subject reacting to knowing that they are being observed) Participant Observation-acting as you are part of the scene, participating but observing at the same time and making sure you don’t skew or bias the people behaviour that you’re observing Expectancy Effects-experimenter may has bias, expecting to see certain things so you’re paying more attention to those things and may be missing out on seeing other things, our behaviour is influenced by our expectations, going in with a checklist of what you want to view may help reduce these biases Example-seeing the bunny before class and when seeing the bunny/duck picture you see the bunny (priming) Example-wine experts (participants) given expensive and cheap bottle of wine to taste but the wine was switched between them, wine experts said the expensive bottle was better Example-when reading the paper and read about someone who was convicted/charged and when seeing the picture you think ‘oh yeah, he looks like he would commit that crime’ but then realize that person is actually the victim -advantage of videotaping behaviour is you have that videotape to fall back on in case you left anything out when you observed them but videotaping is not necessarily a safeguard to good observing -a good idea is to have two observers viewing the same videos so you are getting two different perspectives on the same situation Inter-Observer Reliability-want to have a consistency in the observations of two or more observers but if the observations of the two observers are inconsistent then there is a problem 3. Experiment Method -if
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