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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 Notes.docx

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PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

Variations in Consciousness The nature of Consciousness Definition: Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli - Is it passive (the receiver of sensation), or an active process like sensation and perception Epiphenomenalism – the idea that mental states are born out or caused by physical states in the brain. It’s the nervous system that gives rise to the consciousness. It Variation in Levels of Awareness and Control William James: Stream of conscious Freud: influence of “unconscious” needs, wishes, and conflicts “Level of awareness” (not an all-or-nothing thing): We are still conscious when asleep. “Selective sensitivity” We can’t be conscious or aware of everything. Need to select to function. i.e if we want to see something we need to fade out other things. - There is active mental processing even when a sleep we don’t fall of bed when asleep and we hear the cry of a baby but not the thunder storm. Freud states that our mind tends to wander Evolutionary Roots of consciousness Allows for thought and making functional choices. Consciousness helps us make decisions quickly. Consciousness and Brain Activity Seems born out of the interplay of many different neural pathways Brain Activity Can be Measured EEG (electroencephalograph) - Summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracins called brain waves. - Different pattrns with different states of consciousness exist. Biological rhythms and sleep (Many rhythms, ovarian cycle, cycles of the moon, biorhythms Circadian Rhythms: Daily rhythms that our body tends to go through. - Sleep debt - Issue of shift work Melatonin and Circadian Rhythms Certain things reset the circadian rhythm every day for the 24 hour cycle Conducting Sleep Research Get set of instructions: (e.g. eat normal dinner, bring comfortable pajamas, avoid caffeine after noon) Sleep history: (e.g. how long does it take you to fall asleep? Once asleep, do you have trouble staying asleep? Do you have any discomfort in your legs when you are lying in bed trying to sleep? Do you snore? Do you fall asleep unintentionally during the day? (apnea, restless-leg syndrome) Hook up to: EMG (electromyography) and EOG (electrooculograph) (also measures for breathing, heart activity, and smell activity) The Sleep Waking Cycle Stages 1-4 Stage 1: alpha waves, hypnic jerks Stage 2: sleep spindles Stage 3 + 4: slow-wave sleep (SWS), delta waves REM sleep - It is hardest to wake up during REM - Correlated with reports of vivid and m
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