Tutorial #14: Adolescence and Adulthood
Textbook Ch. 11, p. 504-505, 514-545
1) Why do teenagers have a greater potential to engage in risky behaviours than adults do?
a) They have a stronger need for affiliation
b) Their hormones are under-regulated, and risky behaviour gives them a different ‘rush’
than it does for adults
c) The part of the brain that controls judgment is not fully developed yet in teenagers
d) It is more culturally acceptable for teenagers to engage in risky behaviour
2) Jay is having an identity crisis. What would you recommend he do to move towards a
a) Find a way to separate clearly his work life from his home life
b) Look back on his memories to pinpoint when the crisis began and what caused it
c) Take a cooking class (because he always talks about wanting to be a better cook)
d) Accept the fact that he may never have a fully-formed identity
3) A person whose identity is at the stage of diffusion may be characterized by:
a) Enrolling in classes that are easy
b) Enrolling in classes that are required for a specific degree
c) Enrolling in classes that their parents told them to take
d) Enrolling in classes from many different faculties
4) Which was not one of the reasons mentioned by couples married 15 years or more for the
longevity of their relationship?
a) Being able to laugh together
b) Doing activities apart, as well as together
c) Sharing common values and goals
d) Considering their partner to be their best friend
5) As a symptom of Alzheimer’s disease, cortical atrophy is caused by:
a) The loss of memory functioning, first for recent events, and then for older memories
b) Increased neural activity in the cortex
c) Shrinkage of the midbrain
d) The presence of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in the cortex
6) Who is likely to live longer?
a) Rachel, a non-smoker
b) Finn, who doesn’t drink
c) Sue, who has had the same best friend since kindergarten
d) Puck, who can function on just 4 hours of sleep per night
7) Erikson would say that adolescents ask themselves the question ________________.
a) Who should I be friends with?
b) Who should I marry? c) Who am I, and where am I going?
d) Am I good or bad?
8) Grandpa Jackson plays an active role in the children’s programs at his church and volunteers
to help out in the classrooms of the local schools. Erikson would say that Grandpa Jackson is
successfully dealing with the crisis of ______________.
a) Intimacy vs. moratorium
b) Trust vs. mistrust
c) Generativity vs. self-absorption
d) Integrity vs. foreclosure
9) Kohlberg found that preconventional morality:
a) Grows exponentially as children grow older
b) Grows steadily through age 12
c) Declines steadily after age 7
d) Declines abruptly between ages 4 and 7
10) Which of the following occurs during pubescence:
a) Growth spurts
b) Full development of primary sex characteristics
d) Full development of the prefrontal cortex
11) What explanation is given in the textbook for why adolescents begin puberty at a younger
age and complete it more rapidly in the current generation?
a) There are more growth hormones in the food they eat
b) They have better nutrition and medical care
c) There is cultural pressure to mature faster
d) Puberty does not occur any earlier in the current generation
12) Which of the following is not a feature of emerging adulthood:
a) Focus on the self, rather than social obligations
b) Feeling not quite like an adolescent and not quite like an adult
c) High optimism about the future
d) Engaging in high risk behaviour and feeling invincible
13) Which statement is most accurate about cognitive abilities in late adulthood?
a) Older adults have poorer memory abilities, especially for tasks involving procedural and
b) The ‘use it or lose it’ hypothesis has not received much support in research findings
c) Fluid intelligence is more likely to decline with age than crystallized intelligence
d) Only half of adults at age 60 show no decline in their intelligence level
14) Which of the following statements about gender differences is not supported by research:
a) More males than females have exceptionally high math skills
b) Females have better verbal skills c) Gender differences are generally small
d) While males have better overall visual-spatial abilities, females are better at tasks that
require mental rotations
Practice Short Answer (3 marks):
List the 3 levels of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, and describe how a person at each
level might come to reason that cheating on a test is bad.
1 – preconventional – if I cheat and get caught, I’ll get a 0 on the test
2 – conventional – the school’s policy says that cheating is bad
3 – postconventional – cheating is unfair to the rest of the class and it will prevent me from
actually learning the material that I’m here to learn
Multiple Choice Answer Key:
1) c 2) c 3) a 4) b 5) d 6) a 7) c 8) c 9) c 10) a 11) b 12) d 13) c
Tutorial #13: Child Development
Textbook Ch. 11, p. 488-503, 505-514
1) The longest stage of prenatal development is called the _____________ stage.
2) Following conception, what is the correct order of the forms that an organism goes through?
a) Egg and sperm, embryo, fetus, baby
b) Zygote, embryo, fetus, baby
c) Fetus, embryo, zygote, baby
d) Embryo, fetus, zygote, baby
3) The central nervous system is vulnerable to damage during any portion of prenatal
development, but the ____________ is/are likely vulnerable during only the embryonic period.
b) External genitals
4) Which of the following is a teratogen:
b) High maternal cortisol levels
c) Nutritional supplements
d) Caffeine 5) All of the following are reflexes displayed by infants except:
c) knee jerking
6) Which statement about motor development is most accurate?
a) Most babies can sit up before they learn to roll over
b) If a child is not walking well on their own by 12 months, this may be an indication that
there is a problem
c) The sequence of developmental milestones is different for every baby
d) A baby will likely learn to walk sooner if their caregivers help them mimic walking at an
7) Which child is likely to have the most advanced linguistic development:
a) Bobby, who doesn’t vocalize much but has a very talkative older brother
b) Jenny, who favours toys that make animal noises
c) Michael, who is very shy around other people
d) Lila, who turns her head to focus when someone is talking to her
8) According to Piaget, a child seeing a cat for the first time and calling it a “dog” is
demonstrating the concept of ______________.
a) Identity confusion
9) Malinda knows that a ball that she cannot see still exists, but is unable to understand that a big
slice of pizza and two little slices of pizza equal the same amount of food. Piaget would say that
Malinda is likely in the __________ period of development.
c) Concrete operational
d) Formal operational
10) Which of the following is a limitation of Piaget’s theory?
a) Research does not support the presence of a ‘formal operational’ stage.
b) Conservation doesn’t actually develop until the period of formal operations.
c) Infants understand object permanence earlier than Piaget thought
d) The germinal stage actually occurs from about 3 to 7 years of age.
11) A child ____________ is least likely to be willing to share his toys.
a) In the formal operational period
b) Who has learned the concept of conservation
c) Who is very egocentric
d) Who is between 7 and 11 years of age 12) An 11-month old screams loudly as she is taken out of the hands of her mother by a
neighbor. This behavior may be an indication of _____________.
a) An avoidant attachment
b) Separation anxiety
c) Attachment anxiety
d) An insecure infant
13) Ainsworth found that children with ___________ seek little contact with their mothers and
often are not distressed when she leaves.
a) A secure attachment
b) An anxious/ambivalent attachment
c) An avoidant attachment
d) Infants always seek contact with their mothers, so none of these answers are correct.
14) How is the prevalence of attachment styles expressed across cultures?
a) Avoidant attachment is much more common in Japan than in Western countries
b) Rates of anxious-ambivalent attachment are fairly similar across cultures
c) Rates of secure attachment are fairly similar across cultures
d) In Germany, but not in the United States or Japan, avoidant attachment is more common
than secure attachment
Practice Short Answer (4 marks):
Describe how a parent with each of the 4 parenting styles would likely deal with a child having a
tantrum at the grocery store.
1 – authoritarian – spank the child
2 – authoritative – take the child out of the store and explain that they will not re-enter
until the child stops crying
3 – indulgent – promise to buy the child a candy bar if s/he stops crying
4 – neglectful – walk off without the child and continue shopping
Multiple Choice Answer Key:
1) c 2) b 3) c 4) b 5) c 6) d 7) d 8) b 9) a 10) c 11) c 12) b 13) c
Tutorial #12: Emotion
Textbook Ch. 10, p. 467-485
1) Thinking 'that snake could bite me' is an example of which component of an emotion:
2) Which of the following is not an activity of the parasympathetic nervous system: a) Stimulated digestion
b) Dilated pupils