Class Notes (838,384)
Canada (510,870)
York University (35,470)
Psychology (4,109)
PSYC 1010 (1,346)
all (47)


10 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 1010
All Professors

Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p390 - 418) KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 392-402) - Drive theories apply a homeostatic model to motivation. They assume that organisms seek to reduce unpleasant states of tension called drives. In contrast, incentive theories emphasize how external goals energize behaviour - Evolutionary theorists explain motives in terms of their adaptive value. Madsenʼs list of biological needs and Murrayʼs list of social needs illustrate that a diverse array of motive govern human behaviour - Eating is regulated by a complex interaction of biological and environmental factors. In the brain, the lateral and ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus were once viewed as on-off centres for the control of hunger, but their exact role is now unclear. Recent research suggests that hunger is regulated by neural circuits rather than anatomical centres in the brain - Fluctuations in blood glucose also seem to play a role in hunger, but the exact location of the “glucostats” and their mode of functioning are yet to be determined. Hormonal regulation of hunger depends primarily on insulin and leptin - Incentive-oriented models assert that eating is regulated by the availability and palatability of food. Learning processes, such as classical conditioning and observational learning, exert a great deal of influence over both what people eat and how much they eat. Cultural traditions also shape food preferences. Stress can stimulate eating - Obesity is a serious health problem that elevates the risk of many diseases. Evidence indicates that there is a genetic predisposition to obesity - Weight problems occur when people eat too much in relation to their exercise level. According to set-point theory, the body monitors fat stores to keep them fairly stable. Setting-point theory suggests that a multitude of factors contribute to weight stability. Vacillations in dietary restraint resulting in disinhibition may contribute to obesity in some people - Weight problems may also be manifested as eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. These disorders, which are more prevalent in women than in men, have a variety of causes Motivational Theories and Concepts - motives - needs, wants, interests and desires that propel people in a certain direction - motivation - involves goal directed behaviour Drive Theories - Psychoanalytic - Freud - Behaviourist formulations - Clark Hull - concept of drive derived from Walter Cannonʼs observation that organisms seek to maintain homeostasis - a state of physiological equilibrium or stability - drive - an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension - when experience a drive, motivated o pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction - Drive theorist cannot explain all motivation (ex: thirst for knowledge Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p390 - 418) Incentive Theories - propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states - incentive - an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour - Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions. Incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions. (push vs. pull theories) - incentive theories emphasize environmental factors and downplay the biological bases of human motivation - Expectancy-value models of motivation are incentive theories that take the reality that one canʼt always obtain goals desired into account - oneʼs motivation to pursue a particular course of action depends on: (1) expectancy about oneʼs chances of attaining the incentive (2) the value of the desired incentive Evolutionary Theories - human motives and those of other species are the products of evolution - natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive success - explain motives such as affiliation, achievement, dominance, aggression, and sex drive in terms of their adaptive value The Range and Diversity of Human Motives - Humans display and enormous diversity of motives - Most theorists (except evolutionary) distinguish between biological motives that originate in bodily needs and social motives that originate in social experiences - people have limited biological needs (10-15) people all share these - Social motives vary depending on experiences - can acquire an unlimited number of social motives through learning and socialization - Henry Murray theorized that most people have needs for achievement, autonomy, affiliation, dominance, exhibition and order The Motivation of Hunger and Eating Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger - there is an association between stomach contractions and the experience of hunger - however false: Cannon theorized that stomach contractions cause hunger -discredited BRAIN REGULATION - experience of hunger is controlled in the brain - in two centres located in the hypothalamus - lateral hypothalamus - destroy --> no interest in eating - ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus - destroy --> excessive eating - recognition of fullness destroyed - LH and VMH - on-off switches for the control of hunger - Current thinking: LH and VMH are elements in the neural circuitry that regulates hunger but are not the key elements - belief that the paraventricular nucleus plays a larger role Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p390 - 418) - Contemporary theories focus on neural circuits that pass through the hypothalamus rather than on anatomical centres in the brain - circuits depend on a variety of neurotransmitters with neuropeptide Y and serotonin - large roles - evidence suggests that the hypothalamus contains a confluence of interacting systems that regulate eating by monitoring a diverse array of physiological processes GLUCOSE AND DIGESTIVE REGULATION - glucose - a simple sugar that is an important source of energy - decrease blood glucose levels increase hunger - glucostatic theory - proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by glucostats - neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid - problem: glucose levels in blood donʼt really fluctuate much or all that fast - After you have consumed food, cells in the stomach can send signals to the brain that inhibit further eating HORMONAL REGULATION - Insulin - secreted by pancreas and must b present for cells to extract glucose from the blood - secretion is associated with increased hunger - sight and smell of food can stimulate the secretion of insulin - leptin - produced by fat cells and released into the blood stream - higher levels of fat generate higher levels of leptin - circulates through the bloodstream and ultimately provide the hypothalamus with information about the bodyʼs fat stores - activates receptors in the brain that inhibit the release of neuropeptide Y, which leads to activity in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus which inhibits eating Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger FOOD AVAILABILITY AND RELATED CUES - incentive theorists argue that humans and other animals are often motivated to eat not by the need to compensate for energy deficits but by the anticipated pleasure of eating - availability and palatability of food are the key factors regulating hunger - hunger can be triggered by exposure to environmental cues that have been associated with eating (exposure to pictures, written descriptions and video depiction of attractive foods - Eating is often a social action - presence of others generally inhibits eating - our eating is influenced by extant social norms determined by the behaviour of the others around us at the time LEARNED PREFERENCES AND HABITS - people from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption - Humans do have some innate taste preferences of general sort - Learning wields a great deal of influence over what people prefer to eat - Eating habits are also shaped by observational learning Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p390 - 418) STRESS AND EATING - studies have shown that stress leads to increased eating in a substantial portion of people - Some theorists believe that it is stress-induced physiological arousal rather than stress itself that stimulates eating - Some theorists believe that it is the negative emotions often evoked by stress that promote additional eating Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity - obesity - the condition of being overweight - body mass index (BMI) - an individualʼs weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in metres) squared - obesity is a significant health problem that elevates oneʼs mortality risk - overweight people are more vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory problems, gallbladder disease, stroke, arthritis, muscle and skeletal pain, and some types of cancer - Evolutionary-oriented researchers - over the course of history most animals and humans have lived in environments in which there was fierce competition for limited, unreliable food resources and where starvation was a real threat hence warm-blooded foraging animals evolved a propensity to consume more food than immediately necessary when the opportunity presented itself GENETIC PREDISPOSITION - some people inherit a genetic vulnerability to obesity - proven by adoptive and twin studies EXCESSIVE EATING AND INADEQUATE EXERCISE - energy intake from food consumption of overweight people chronically exceeds their energy expenditure from physical activities and resting metabolic processes - increased availability of highly caloric food in North America has been paralleled by declining physical activity THE CONCEPT OF SET POINT - body may have a set point r a natural point of stability in body weight - set-point theory - proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable - alternative theory - settling-point theory - proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieves an equilibrium - weight tends to remain stable as long as there are no durable changes in any of the factors that influence it DIETARY RESTRAINT - some investigators have proposed that vacillations in dietary restraint contribute to obesity Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p390 - 418) - chronic dieters are restrained eaters -people who consciously work overtime to control their eating impulses and who feel guilty when they fail - retrained eaters go hungry much to the time but they are constantly thinking about food. When their cognitive control is disrupted, they become disinhibited and eat to excess - dietary restraint also contributes to the tendency to overeat just before beginning a diet - anticipation of food deprivation seems to act as another disinhibitor EATING DISORDERS - anorexia nervosa - disorder in which (mostly) young women literally starve themselves, sometimes to death - bulimia nervosa - disorder in which (mostly) young women alternate between binge eating and purging. - eating disorders are more prevalent in women than men - Variety of factors implicated in the occurrence of eating disorders including: biological, psychological, developmental, and social factors - activity anorexia - because some of these social prescriptions for thinness, some individuals may engage in a combination of sever dieting and excessive exercise that elicits a biochemical process resulting in starvation and even death KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 403-409) - Hormones exert considerable influence over sexual motivation in many animals. Some interesting correlations between testosterone fluctuations and sexual activity in humans suggests that hormonal swings may have a small impact on human sexual desire - People respond to a variety of erotic materials, which may elevate sexual desire for only a few hours but many have an enduring impact on attitudes about sex. Aggressive pornography may make sexual coercion seem less offensive and may contribute to date rape. Attraction to a potential partner is a critical determinant of sexual interest in both animals and humans - According to parental investment theory, males are thought to compete with other males for reproductive opportunities and females are assumed to be the discriminating sex that is selective in choosing partners. Consistent with evolutionary theory, makes tend to think about and initiate sex more than females do and have more sexual partners and more interest in casual sex than do females - The Featured Study by Buss demonstrated that there are gender differences in mating preferences that largely transcend cultural boundaries. Males emphasize potential partnerʼs youthfulness and attractiveness, whereas females emphasize potential partnersʼ status and financial prospects Sexual Motivation and Behaviour Determinants of Sexual Desire - sex essential to survival of species but not of individual Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p390 - 418) HORMONAL REGULATION - hormones secreted by the gonads can influence motivation - Estorgens are the principal class of gonadal hormones in females - Androgens are the principal class of
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.