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September 9, 2013 Modules 1,2,3.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010

Modules 1, 2, 3 Psychology 1010 September 9, 2013 Textbook: David Myers Psychology tenth edition in modules 2013 Important Dates: Oct 25, last day to add course with instructor’s permission. Feb 14, last day to drop course Course Breakdown: Non-cumulative tests worth 5%, 3 assignments worth 11%, URPP worth 4% • Must achieve a C to go on to take other psychology courses Module 1: What is psychology: science of behaviour and factors that influence it? What is behaviour? 2 components • Directly observable activity • Mental processes (not observable, thinking, motivation) What factors influence behaviour? • Biological • Individual • Environmental Critical thought (is that source a credible source? Are there other explanations?) Goals of Psychology 1. Describe behaviour and mental processes 2. Explain/understand causes of behaviours 3. Predict Structuralism • Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener established psychology • Determine structure of mind through use of analytic introspection o Sensations are basic elements of consciousness o Sensations are studied through introspection • Self-Reflective Introspection (looking inward): training people to report elements of their experiences as they looked at objects • Wilhelm experiment Modules 1, 2, 3 o push a button when a ball drops, based on when they hear it hit the platform (1/10 sec) o Push a button when you are consciously aware of hearing the ball hit the platform (2/10 sec) • Titchener relied on “self-report” Functionalism • William james (wrote first psyc textbook in 1890) • Interested in “whys” not the “what’s” Psychology Pioneers • MARY WHITON CALKINS 1863 (denied Harvard PhD because she was a female) o Became memory researcher and first female president of APA Perspectives on behaviour • Biological, cognitive, psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, sociocultural Psychodynamic • Causes of behaviour are within • Freud (childhood experiences alter our behaviour) • Psychology problems are result of; o Motives o Unresolved past conflicts • Broadened study and treatment of psychology disorders Behaviourism • Watson, Skinner o Observable behavioural was important • Not mental events o Therefore study only the behaviour • Behaviour controlled by environment • Beginning of behavioural modification • Psychology was defined as “the science of mental life” Modules 1, 2, 3 Cognitive Behaviours • But human being are thinking creatures • Do not just react to environment • Link between behaviour and cognitive Humanistic • Emphasis o Conscious motives o Freedom o Choice Gestalt Psychology • How do we make sense of the world around us? • “whole is greater than the sum of its parts • Interested in perception Cognitive Perspectives • Focus=how do mental processes influence motives, emotions, behaviours? • Humans are; information processors, problems solvers • Language acquisitions The nature-nurture question: To what extent are our traits already set in place at birth (our “nature”)? • How much of our human traits are present at birth Plato: the good and beauty are inborn Aristotle: all knowledge comes through the senses Descartes: some ideas are innate • Observed animals from one island and would compare them to animals from another John Locke: mind is a blank slate “Nurture works on what Nature endows” Cognitive: how reliable is memory? Sociocultural: could things be downloads from our culture Modules 1, 2, 3 Behavioural genetics: could our behaviour, skills, and attitudes be genetically programmed instincts? Neurosciences: what role do our bodies and brains play in emoti
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