Class Notes (837,194)
Canada (510,160)
York University (35,409)
Psychology (4,109)
PSYC 1010 (1,346)
all (47)

September 16, 2013 Modules 4,5,6.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 1010
All Professors

Psychology 1010 September 16, 2013 Teaching Assistance: Alexandra Basile [email protected] Module 4 –Neural and Hormonal Systems -How does the brain control what we experience and how we behave? Neurons • Neurons pile up, never by themselves • Never any contact between neurons, but they are very close • Cell body sends impulses down the axon towards the terminal branches -Glial cells support, nourish and protect • Surround neurons and hold them in place • Manufacture nutrient chemicals neurons need • Absorb toxins and waste materials -Myelin Sheath- fatty insulation layer, insulates axons and speeds their impulses -Action potential (positive ions come in and out) (depolarization) • Brief electrical charge that runs down its axon -When does the cell send action potential? When it reaches a threshold • The threshold is reached when excitatory (fire signal s) outweigh the inhibitory (don’t fire signals) by a certain amount o Increasing the level of stimulation above the threshold will not increase the neural impulses intensity (all or none response)(neurons either fire or they don’t) o A strong stimulus can cause more neurons to fire and to fire more often -Synapse- is a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron (also known as the synaptic junction or the synaptic gap) -Effect of Neurotransmitters (Chemical released that bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron) • Excitatory • Inhibitory o Stimulates ion channels to allow k+ to flow out o Decreases likelihood of action potential -Recycling neurotransmitter • Reuptake- after used chemicals taken back up into sending neuron to be used again • Breakdown- after being used other chemicals in the synapse breakdown NT’s -ACH-control behavior, learning and memory • Malfunctions: Alzheimer’s disease -Dopamine- voluntary movements, emotion • Too much can cause: Parkinson’s, schizophrenia -Norepinephrine-alertness and arousal • Low levels cause: depress mood -Gaba-coordinating behaviour, anxiety and motor control • Low levels cause: Seizures, tremors, insomnia -Serotonin- mood, sleep, eating, arousal • Low levels cause: Depression -Endorphin- learning memory, wakefulness, eating • Too much can cause: overstimulation of brain causing migraines or seizures -An agonist molecule fills the receptor site and activates it, acting like the neurotransmitter -An antagonist molecule fills the lock so that the neurotransmitter cannot get in and activate the receptor site -Nervous System- Peripheral and central nervous systems • Peripheral=autonomic (controls self-regulated action of internal organs and somatic (controls voluntary movements) • Autonomic =sympathetic (arouses body “fight or flight”) and parasympathetic -Types of neurons • Sensory neurons- carry messages from the bodies tissues and sensory receptors to the brain • Motor neurons-CNS out to the body tissue/muscles • Interneurons- process information between the sensory input and motor output -Nerves are not neurons • Nerves consist of neural cables containing many axons • Part of the peripheral nervous system -Interneurons in your spine trigger your hand to pull away from fire before you say OUCH -Endocrine system refers to a set of glands they produce chemical • Sends out messages -Pituitary gland is the master gland of endocrine system • Controlled by the hypothalamus • Produce hormones that stimulate physical growth Extra Book Notes • The fluid outside an axons membrane has mostly positive charges ions, a resting interior has mostly (-) charged ions • Depolarization= the axon opens its gates letting positively charged ions flood into the membrane • During the rest phase (refractory period) it pumps positive ions back out) Module 5 Unlocking the brains secrets • Destruction and stimulation o Known areas of damage o Stimulating areas with electricity • Wilder Penfield o Montreal 1930’s o Stimulated parts of the cortex with mild electrical current  Patients were awake and responsive o Mapped multiple motor and sensory areas: smell, touch, etc • Electrical Recording EEG
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.