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Lecture

September 16, 2013 Modules 4,5,6.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Psychology 1010 September 16, 2013 Teaching Assistance: Alexandra Basile [email protected] Module 4 –Neural and Hormonal Systems -How does the brain control what we experience and how we behave? Neurons • Neurons pile up, never by themselves • Never any contact between neurons, but they are very close • Cell body sends impulses down the axon towards the terminal branches -Glial cells support, nourish and protect • Surround neurons and hold them in place • Manufacture nutrient chemicals neurons need • Absorb toxins and waste materials -Myelin Sheath- fatty insulation layer, insulates axons and speeds their impulses -Action potential (positive ions come in and out) (depolarization) • Brief electrical charge that runs down its axon -When does the cell send action potential? When it reaches a threshold • The threshold is reached when excitatory (fire signal s) outweigh the inhibitory (don’t fire signals) by a certain amount o Increasing the level of stimulation above the threshold will not increase the neural impulses intensity (all or none response)(neurons either fire or they don’t) o A strong stimulus can cause more neurons to fire and to fire more often -Synapse- is a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron (also known as the synaptic junction or the synaptic gap) -Effect of Neurotransmitters (Chemical released that bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron) • Excitatory • Inhibitory o Stimulates ion channels to allow k+ to flow out o Decreases likelihood of action potential -Recycling neurotransmitter • Reuptake- after used chemicals taken back up into sending neuron to be used again • Breakdown- after being used other chemicals in the synapse breakdown NT’s -ACH-control behavior, learning and memory • Malfunctions: Alzheimer’s disease -Dopamine- voluntary movements, emotion • Too much can cause: Parkinson’s, schizophrenia -Norepinephrine-alertness and arousal • Low levels cause: depress mood -Gaba-coordinating behaviour, anxiety and motor control • Low levels cause: Seizures, tremors, insomnia -Serotonin- mood, sleep, eating, arousal • Low levels cause: Depression -Endorphin- learning memory, wakefulness, eating • Too much can cause: overstimulation of brain causing migraines or seizures -An agonist molecule fills the receptor site and activates it, acting like the neurotransmitter -An antagonist molecule fills the lock so that the neurotransmitter cannot get in and activate the receptor site -Nervous System- Peripheral and central nervous systems • Peripheral=autonomic (controls self-regulated action of internal organs and somatic (controls voluntary movements) • Autonomic =sympathetic (arouses body “fight or flight”) and parasympathetic -Types of neurons • Sensory neurons- carry messages from the bodies tissues and sensory receptors to the brain • Motor neurons-CNS out to the body tissue/muscles • Interneurons- process information between the sensory input and motor output -Nerves are not neurons • Nerves consist of neural cables containing many axons • Part of the peripheral nervous system -Interneurons in your spine trigger your hand to pull away from fire before you say OUCH -Endocrine system refers to a set of glands they produce chemical • Sends out messages -Pituitary gland is the master gland of endocrine system • Controlled by the hypothalamus • Produce hormones that stimulate physical growth Extra Book Notes • The fluid outside an axons membrane has mostly positive charges ions, a resting interior has mostly (-) charged ions • Depolarization= the axon opens its gates letting positively charged ions flood into the membrane • During the rest phase (refractory period) it pumps positive ions back out) Module 5 Unlocking the brains secrets • Destruction and stimulation o Known areas of damage o Stimulating areas with electricity • Wilder Penfield o Montreal 1930’s o Stimulated parts of the cortex with mild electrical current  Patients were awake and responsive o Mapped multiple motor and sensory areas: smell, touch, etc • Electrical Recording EEG
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