PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Genital Stage, Sexual Repression, Oedipus Complex

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4 Mar 2015
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PSYCH 1010: Chapter 12 By: Shayan
PERSONALITY: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND ASSESSMENT
-Personality used as a way to predict what someone will do – to predict their
behaviour
-Linked to various processes and outcomes important to us all like happiness,
physical and psychological health, relationships of all kinds, personal identity,
criminal behaviour
-Personality testing part of NASA and training program for astronauts
DEFINING PERSONALITY: CONSISTENCY AND DISTINCTIVENESS
-No one is always consistent in behaviour, but consistency like optimism lies at
the core of the concept of personality
-Distinctiveness also central to concept of personality
-Personality used to explain why everyone doesn’t act the same way in similar
situations
-Concept of personality used to explain:
1) Stability in a person’s behaviour over time and across situations (consistency)
2) Behavioural differences among people reacting to same situation
(distinctiveness)
-We can combined these ideas to get this definition – Personality: refers to
individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits
PERSONALITY TRAITS: DISPOSITION AND DIMENSIONS
-Personality trait: durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of
situations (moody, dependably, impulsive, friendly, etc.)
-Most approaches assume some traits are more basic than others
-According to this, small number of fundamental traits determine other, more
superficial traits
Ex: person being impulsive, restless, impatient may all derive from being
excitable
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-Factor analysis: correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify
closely related clusters of variables
If measurements of a number of variables (in this case, personality traits)
correlate highly with one another, assumption is that single factor is
influencing all of them
Used to identify these hidden factors
Hidden factors are viewed as very basic, higher-order traits that determine
less back, more specific traits
-Raymond Cattell concluded that individual’s personality can be described
completely by measuring just 16 traits
-16 traits:
Reserved, outgoing
Less intelligent, more intelligent
Affected by feelings, emotionally stable
Submissive, dominant
Serious, happy-go-lucky
Expedient, conscientious
Timid, venturesome
Tough-minded, sensitive
Trusting, suspicious
Practical, imaginative
Forthright, shrewd
Self-assured, apprehensive
Conservative, experimenting
Group-dependent, self-sufficient
Uncontrolled, controlled
Relaxed, tense
THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY TRAITS
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-Robert McCae and Paul Costa in recent years have used factor amalysis to
arrive at even simpler, five-factor model or personality
-Say that most personality traits derived from five higher-order traits that have
come to be known as “the Big Five”:
1. Extraversion:
Outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, gregarious
‘positive emotionality’
Tend to be happier than others
More positive outlook on life
Motivated to pursue social contact, intimacy, interdependence
2. Neuroticism :
Anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, vulnerable
Overreact more in response to stress than others
Exhibit more impulsiveness and emotional instability than others
3. Openness to experience:
Associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness,
artistic sensitivity, unconventional attitudes
Tolerant of ambiguity and have less need for closure on issues than
others
McCrae maintains the importance of this is underestimated
Argues it’s key determinant of people’s political attitudes and ideology
Less prejudice against minorities than others
4. Agreeableness:
Sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, straightforward
Constructive approaches to conflict resolution
Less quarrelsome than others
5. Conscientiousness:
Diligent, disciplined, well-organized, punctual, dependable
Strong self-discipline and ability to regulate one-self effectively
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