Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
a. Cephalocaudal trend – the head to foot direction of motor development.
i.e. children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies
before the lower part.
b. Proximodistal trend – center-outward direction of motor development.
i.e. children gain control of their torso before their extremities.
c. Early motor development depends on physical growth and maturation.
d. Maturation – the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of
one’s genetic blueprint. Product of genetically programmed physical
changes that come with age.
3. Understanding Developmental Norms
a. Developmental Norms – indicate the median age at which individuals
display various behaviors and abilities. Useful benchmarks.
4. Cultural Variations and Their Significance
a. Highlights the relationship between experience and maturation – i.e.
b. Early motor development depends on maturation. Later motor
development acquire more specialized motor skills which may be unique
to their culture.
B. Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
1. Temperament – characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity.
2. Longitudinal Design – investigators observe one group of participants
repeatedly over a period of time. More sensitive to developmental influences
3. Cross Sectional Design – investigators compare groups of participants of
differing age at a single point in time. Quicker, easier, and cheaper.
4. Thomas and Chess – found that temperamental individuality is established by
the time the infant is 2-3 months old. 3 Basic Styles:
a. Easy Children – tend to be happy, regular in sleep, eating, adaptable, not
b. Slow to Warm Up Children – tended to be less cheery, less regular in
sleep and eating, slower in adapting to change. Wary of new
experiences, and emotional reactivity is moderate
c. Difficult children – glum, erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change,
and relatively irritable.
d. Child’s temperament at 3 months was good indicator of later
5. Kagan – relied on direct observation of children in study of temperaments
a. Inhibited Temperament – shyness, timidity, wariness of unfamiliar
people, objects and events.
b. Uninhibited Temperament – less restrained, approaching unfamiliar
people, objects, and events with little hesitation.
c. Reasonably stable.
C. Early Emotional Development: Attachment
1. Attachment – the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between
infants and their caregivers.