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PSYChapter 11.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
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Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
I. Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
A. Introduction
1. Development – the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person
progresses from conception to death. Incl both biological and behavioral
changes.
2. Zygote – a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg.
3. Prenatal Period – period from conception to birth, aprox. 9 months, marked by
rapid development, until tapering off before birth.
B. The Course of Prenatal Development
1. Germinal Stage – first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first
2 weeks after conception.
a. Begins when zygote is created through fertilization.
b. Placenta – structure that allows oxygen and other nutrients to pass into
the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to
the mother. Takes place during implantation process.
2. Embryonic Stage – second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2
weeks until the end of the second month.
a. Most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing
organism known as an embryo.
b. Heart, spine, brain form
3. Fetal Stage – the 3rd stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months
through birth.
a. Rapid bodily growth, muscles and bones begin to form.
b. Known as a fetus.
c. Age of Viability – the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a
premature birth (i.e. 22-26 weeks)
C. Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
1. Maternal Nutrition – severe maternal malnutrition can lead to increases in the
birth complications and neurological defects of a newborn.
2. Maternal Drug Use – major source of concern about fetal and infant well
being, as many drugs consumed by a pregnant women can be passed on to the
placenta.
a. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – collection of congenital (inborn) problems
associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Incl.
hyperactivity, retarded mental and motor development.
3. Maternal Illness – fetus is defenseless against infections because its immune
system matures relatively late in the prenatal period. May incl. AIDS, Flu, etc.
4. Prenatal Health Care – good quality medical care that begins early in
pregnancy is associated with reduce prematurity and higher survival rates for
infants.
II. The Wondrous Years of Childhood
A. Exploring the World: Motor Development
1. Motor Development – refers to the progression of muscular coordination
required for physical activities.
2. Basic Principles –
1/7
Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
a. Cephalocaudal trend – the head to foot direction of motor development.
i.e. children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies
before the lower part.
b. Proximodistal trend – center-outward direction of motor development.
i.e. children gain control of their torso before their extremities.
c. Early motor development depends on physical growth and maturation.
d. Maturation – the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of
one’s genetic blueprint. Product of genetically programmed physical
changes that come with age.
3. Understanding Developmental Norms
a. Developmental Norms – indicate the median age at which individuals
display various behaviors and abilities. Useful benchmarks.
4. Cultural Variations and Their Significance
a. Highlights the relationship between experience and maturation – i.e.
practice.
b. Early motor development depends on maturation. Later motor
development acquire more specialized motor skills which may be unique
to their culture.
B. Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
1. Temperament – characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity.
2. Longitudinal Design – investigators observe one group of participants
repeatedly over a period of time. More sensitive to developmental influences
and changes.
3. Cross Sectional Design – investigators compare groups of participants of
differing age at a single point in time. Quicker, easier, and cheaper.
4. Thomas and Chess – found that temperamental individuality is established by
the time the infant is 2-3 months old. 3 Basic Styles:
a. Easy Children – tend to be happy, regular in sleep, eating, adaptable, not
readily upset
b. Slow to Warm Up Children – tended to be less cheery, less regular in
sleep and eating, slower in adapting to change. Wary of new
experiences, and emotional reactivity is moderate
c. Difficult children – glum, erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change,
and relatively irritable.
d. Child’s temperament at 3 months was good indicator of later
temperament.
5. Kagan – relied on direct observation of children in study of temperaments
a. Inhibited Temperament – shyness, timidity, wariness of unfamiliar
people, objects and events.
b. Uninhibited Temperament – less restrained, approaching unfamiliar
people, objects, and events with little hesitation.
c. Reasonably stable.
C. Early Emotional Development: Attachment
1. Attachment – the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between
infants and their caregivers.
2/7

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Description
Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER11: H UMAN D EVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN I. Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development A. Introduction 1. Development the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death. Incl both biological and behavioral changes. 2. Zygote a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg. 3. Prenatal Period period from conception to birth, aprox. 9 months, marked by rapid development, until tapering off before birth. B. The Course of Prenatal Development 1. Germinal Stage first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first 2 weeks after conception. a. Begins when zygote is created through fertilization. b. Placenta structure that allows oxygen and other nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mothers bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother. Takes place during implantation process. 2. Embryonic Stage second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 weeks until the end of the second month. a. Most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism known as an embryo. b. Heart, spine, brain form 3. Fetal Stage the 3rd stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months through birth. a. Rapid bodily growth, muscles and bones begin to form. b. Known as a fetus. c. Age of Viability the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth (i.e. 22-26 weeks) C. Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development 1. Maternal Nutrition severe maternal malnutrition can lead to increases in the birth complications and neurological defects of a newborn. 2. Maternal Drug Use major source of concern about fetal and infant well being, as many drugs consumed by a pregnant women can be passed on to the placenta. a. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Incl. hyperactivity, retarded mental and motor development. 3. Maternal Illness fetus is defenseless against infections because its immune system matures relatively late in the prenatal period. May incl. AIDS, Flu, etc. 4. Prenatal Health Care good quality medical care that begins early in pregnancy is associated with reduce prematurity and higher survival rates for infants. II. The Wondrous Years of Childhood A. Exploring the World: Motor Development 1. Motor Development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities. 2. Basic Principles 1/7Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN a. Cephalocaudal trend the head to foot direction of motor development. i.e. children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part. b. Proximodistal trend center-outward direction of motor development. i.e. children gain control of their torso before their extremities. c. Early motor development depends on physical growth and maturation. d. Maturation the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of ones genetic blueprint. Product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age. 3. Understanding Developmental Norms a. Developmental Norms indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities. Useful benchmarks. 4. Cultural Variations and Their Significance a. Highlights the relationship between experience and maturation i.e. practice. b. Early motor development depends on maturation. Later motor development acquire more specialized motor skills which may be unique to their culture. B. Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament 1. Temperament characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity. 2. Longitudinal Design investigators observe one group of participants
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