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Lecture

PSYC 2020 Lecture Notes - Carl Jung, Fundamental Interaction, Stereotype Threat


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2020
Professor
all

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Lecture #33
Review
Ÿ50 multiple choice questions, 25 lecture, 25 textbook, since last review class=non-cumulative J
ŸAbout one question per lecture
Personality
ŸThree fundamental forces
ŸHistory of traits, founder of it, Gordon Allport, the idea that there is a science of traits by looking at
the natural language
ŸRaymond Catell used factor analysis to bring the large number of words that describe humans into a
small number or underlying traits
ŸControversy of traits, if there is cross-situational consistency
ŸWalter Michel who said there really is very little impressive evidence of cross-situational consistency,
and the responses to the critique, those trait psychologists said it could be measured by averaging
behaviours across a period of time
ŸMichel’s reply to the aggregation, new idea of person by situation interactionism, and the model which
looks at very unique patterns and profiles of behaviour
ŸModern traits psychology, the big five, most personality variations can be summarized by five
dimensions, neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness
ŸConsequences and correlates of these traits, the relationship between neuroticism and negative affect,
extroversion and social dominance, conscientiousness and educational and occupational success,
openness and hypnotic ability, etc. (remember the correlates)
ŸTrait psychology from three primary perspectives
ŸPsychoanalytic approach, very dark view of people, conflicted and anxious and often hiding the truth
from ourselves, Freud and his key ideas, and his student Carl Jung, the archetypes, we are constantly
trying to reconcile the components inside us
ŸBehaviourism, the classical behaviourists, Watson and skinner and their focus on overt, observable,
behaviour, if you cant see it, its not worth studying, Bandura, Michel focus on covert behaviour, the
thoughts and feelings inside us, unseen parts to us
ŸBandura and self efficacy, Rotter and expectancy, Michel and integrated framework (remember the
analysts and what they were known for)
ŸHumanism, optimistic view, Rogers and his emphasis on human need for positive regard, human
inclination on what conditions of worth we need to satisfy and Rogers view of how people change by
giving them unconditional positive regard, and Maslow and his hierarchy of needs, lower order must
be met before higher order needs become salient, we need to self-actualize (the top of hierarchy)
Ÿ9 lectures to this topic, 10 lecture questions
Ÿe.g. which trait has consistently been found to be most predictive of social status to face-to face such as
fraternities and sororities? Emotional stability, conscientiousness, extraversion or openness
Social psychology
ŸStudy of the situation, of how human behaviour changes due to the presence of other people
ŸAttitudes and prejudice, conformity and influence
ŸAttitudes are fundamentally an evaluation of something in the world, person, place or thing, only under
very strict conditions do our attitudes influence/predict our behaviour (know what the four conditions
are)
ŸOur behaviour can sometimes determine our attitudes, sometimes we can be induced to behave a
certain a way, and given that behaviour we must adjust our attitude, seen in Festingers study of
compliance, if people can be induced to behave in a way inconsistent with their attitude, they will
change their attitude to be consistent with our behaviour
ŸPrejudice, a negative evaluation based on arbitrary characteristics, how it experiences from point of
view of the target, stereotype threat, they are representing their group, and they fulfill that due to social
pressures, e.g. women and their ability in math depending on their minority or majority settings
ŸConformity and influence, human behaviour is very flexible, people can be made to agree with a group
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