1. Recap: Human science vs. Natural Science perspective
Lived world; asking questions... induction way
Experimental methods; lets us make statements about the cause and effect
Plane of observation; that scientists work on, watch, and observe patterns of
variables and behaviors.
e.g. age, sex, educational level
events (e.g. reward vs. punishment
conditions ( drug vs. placebo, time-limit vs. no time limit)
which can take on 2 or more values
anything less than this by modern standards by considered non-experimental…
when asked to evaluate particular study.. Anything less than that is deemed non-
experimental – having less than one variable.
The interdependent variable in my study isn’t the only independent variable in
the world and my dependant isn’t the only one in the world.
Dependant children have certain effects on mothers – children who do not
tolerate being alone with a stranger will evoke a certain response from a
mother at a certain situation. – the kids behavior causes the moms behavior.
2. How do we define our measurements?
Group of rats – deprived them of food for certain hours and then expose
them with and count the number of food pallets they eat – one way to
Subjective experience of hunger, such as asking humans.
External – food court; visually, ask them about their hunger feeling.
The more into the lived world you get, the more ambiguous your variables
o Trying to meaningfully understand something and measuring it
3. Observation methods
You will discover relationship (naturalistic observation)
o This technique involves observing subjects in their natural
environment. This type of research is often utilized in
situations where conducting lab research is unrealistic,
cost prohibitive or would unduly affect the subject's
behavior. - reactivity/nonreactive measures : measures that affect the
behaviour of the subject/ non reactive observations are the
ones that do not affect the behaviour. Everytiem you give a
questionare or test there will be a reactivity. Unobstrusive
- If you reduce the reactivity, there are ethical concerns.
Why do observational research?
- uncover relationships DISCOVER RELATIONSHIPS
- make statements like this n that happens then.. ECOLOGICAL
- different from saying this caused… check on information
collcected data – other techniues
1. to discover relationship
- where we first discover and explore relationships in an new area
2. importance of ecological validity
- Ecological Validity is the degree to which the behaviors observed
and recordied in a study reflect the behaviors that actually occur
in natural settings. In addition, ecological validity is associated
with "generalizability". Essentially this is the extent to which
findings (from a study) can be generalized (or extended) to the
3. check on information collected using other techniques.
Problems with self report data
- evaluating apprehension, social desirability
2. memory distortions
- memory issues, memory distortion. Mother memory their children’s toilet
training. (mother memories of breast feeding time was 3n half times longer –
overestimated how long they did it.)
3. lack of knowledge
unstructured projective tests vs structured personality tests
when faced with ambiguous stimulus:
1) individual will impose meaning and strucure
- meaning and structure of a picture (bug)
2) individual does so in an idiosyncratic matter which reflects
important underlying processes relevant to personality. tells us about our personality and our way of thinking
I am going to show cards now and I want you to tell me what these cards remind you
off, you cant take long as you wish and you are going to write down everything they
are going to say.
There are 10 stimuli cards.
1. free association
exner methods of scoring ( unstructured )
they look at them common themes and draw conclusions based on their impressions.
Interrealibity – ask proffesionals to dianos , 10- 40 only agree.