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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Early Sensory Capabilities
Lecture 4 - Early Sensory Capabilities

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York University
PSYC 2110
Maxine Wintre

Class Notes – October 28 , 2010 1 Early Sensory Capabilities - Senses: hearing, touch, taste, smell, sight Sensation - The picking up of sensory information by our sensory receptors (ears, skin, tongue, nostrils, eyes, muscles) - Hearing: sensation as waves in pulsating air (collected by the outer ear and transmitted through the bone of the middle ear, to the cordclier nerve) - Vision: sensation occurs as rays of light, collected by 2 pupils of the eye, rays of light are focused on the retina - What are sensory capabilities of infant? And how does it change in later childhood? Perception - Interpretation of what is being sensed - How these physical events are going to be interpreted as … musical sounds, human voice, noise Hearing MacFarlane 1978 - Procedure that proved the unborn child can respond to sound, even in prenatal environment - Before the fetus was born and after mother’s membranes had broken, a microphone was inserted into the uterus into the ears of the fetus, created a loud sound outside (in the abdomen) - Sounds were picked up by the microphone, there’s increased of fetus’s heart rate (sound had be detected) - Monitor fetus’ heart rate = fetus can detect voices - Following birth immediately, baby tune into pattern rhythmic sounds (before birth, hear heart beats) - Newborns prefer high frequency, develop early preferences for one voice (primary caregiver) - Frequency of voice is too high, causes a distress - If frequency is low, it will have a calming effect on newborn - Newborns can distinguish the location of sound as to where it comes from (right or left) they will move to the direction of where the sound is coming - Newborns can distinguish speech sounds, their sound sensitivity increases over the years until they’re 12-13 - Decrease progressively through adulthood, especially for high-pitch sounds Habituation - Form of learning. After repeated presentation of sound stimuli, initial response to the stimuli will decrease and eventually disappear - Similar to getting used to the stimuli, getting tired and fatigued of it - Test it by introducing a different sound, and the reaction to that sound, and go back to the original stimuli and see if that reaction is there - Habituation in neonate is slow - 5-12 months, habituation increases rapidly - Infants retain it for days or weeks - Ability to habituate is related to maturation of sensory cortex (individual rates of habituation) nd - Faster the rate of habituation = appears to be correlated with the speed of learning language in 2 year, correlated with higher IQ score - Reason = the rate of habituation measures the speed of which information is processed along with attention, memory, and preferences for novelty o Underlines problem solving skills and mental abilities = measures of IQ - Sensitivity of sounds increases until 12-13, then decreases o Asynchronized growth of hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling (at different pace) Class Notes – October 28 , 2010 2 Dishabituation - Change in reaction, no longer fatigue or tired to a new stimuli - Same sort of response as if it is new again Touch - Newborns are sensitive to touch, especially the head (cephalo) - Touch is essential for survival (breathing, swallowing) Reflex - Babinski reflex, moro reflex, rooting reflex, grasping reflex - Attachment stresses tactile touch - Ex: Harry Harlow monkeys, important for mom to hold on the infant and strokes, makes contact with infant - Promotes social growth Taste - Difficult area to study, because it is intimately related to sense of smell - Taste buds in neonates are wildly distributed on the tongue compared to ours - Newborns can distinguish between strong tastes, can distinguish sugar, lemony taste, salty taste, bitter taste - Of the 4, they have special preference to sugar Smell - Sense of smell comes from aneteodal research - Sensitive to smell like onions; less attention to odour several time (have been habituated) - 6-10 days, babies learn their mom’s unique breast odour - Sensitivity to smell is well developed by age 6, hearing is age 12, and continues to improve until middle age and then decline - Smokers have less sensitivity to smell - Sense of smell is attached to the transitional object (objects soothing to child – like my conditioner pillow) Vision - Visual acuity of 1 day is equivalent 20/100 20/150 o Infancy at 20 feet (numerator) sees what normal adult sees at 100-150 feet (blurry, dim) - Infants will follow movement of the object (visual tracking) - Infants respond to light-dark contrast, variations of movement, colour and brightness - Infants prefer a moving point of light than a stationary one - Prefer brightly lit patterns, than dimly lit ones - Prefers blue > red > green - Kids’ 2 eyes are not coordinated well at birth, their perception is distorted - When individual focuses on something to look at, 2 eyes converge or diverge - Convergence and divergence = thumb in and out - Convergence = the turning of the eyes inward to view something that is close - Divergence = the eyes turn outward so you can view object at a distance - Convergence movement is important for depth perception and focusing ones’ eyes - Adjustments of eyes are accommodation - Newborns’ eyes cant accommodate; eyes seem to have fixed lens adjustment that is set for the object 8-12 inches from their eyes - Accommodations behaviour of con-divergence (focusing) improve during 3-4 months dramatically - Smell, hearing comes later. Vision is 3-4 months and their vision is the same as normal adult Class Notes – October 28 , 2010 3 o Related to the amount of information we get from our vision, over 60% Asynchronized Growth - Eyes – first 4 months of life - Smell – greatest accumulation of ability takes place is in first 6 years - Hearing – development increasing for the first 12 years Learning Types of learning - Relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience - Learning started in united states, and in Russia, it was a later phenomena - Learning is a reaction, a behavioural responses that can be observed (makes psyc more scientific) - Other aspects are dismissed (higher thoughts, feelings, emotions) because they are not directly observable responses - Assume someone is angry is because of their facial expression and have aggressive b
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