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June 11th Lecture.docx

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PSYC 2130
Krista Phillips

Lecture Outline PSY2130 1. Critical Evaluation of Operant Conditioning Models & Methods  Emotional Reactions, Attitudes Preferences  Explanation of Action Tendencies Are Conditioning Models Helpful in Understanding Personality? 1. Emotional Reactions, Attitudes Preferences the best treatment for anxiety disorders are treatments that work directly with the stimulus response. Condition models are good at explaining emotional reactions 2. Emergence and Dissolution of Action Tendencies condition models are also good at explaining the emergence of action tendencies. Personality and Psycho Therapy – Dollard and Miller  They try to take all of the important concepts of Freudian psychology and reduce them to learning theories.  When you try to reduce anxiety/repression, you found that repression is a learn inhabitation of anxiety provoking experiences. Methodolatry (R. May) It been argued that the principles for conditioning model account for you important things  Showing emotion reaction and attitudes preferences  It’s the best the model to explain something complicated as the anxiety systems and it can have a history in a pairing of a stimuli in the environment Other scholars became disenchanted with other learning approaches because they were Problems with Conditioning models  People not just baby learn a lot from watching each other observation learning  People make decision on whether or not they should emit a response, they have to think about what would happen if we emit the response or not.  Humans give meaning to there experience and strict conditioning models do not express that.  They are good at explaining something but not all dimensions of personality Second Generation of Learning Models  Main people: Bandura, Mischel, Kelly and Rotter o They did not abandon conditioning principles but made them more human and focus on the learning process. o They were willing to examine mental process. o They were struck by the importance of social surrounding o They made the conditioning model more amenable to the study of humans  They asked what variable mattered the most in human learning o They realized that most reinforcement in human experience, it has little to do with physiological change they called this social reinforcement 2. Social Learning Theory: A. Bandura  Assumption and important theoretical departure  Revision of “reinforcement” concept 3. Self Reinforcement  Imitation and self reward 4. Social reinforcement Second generation learning theorist came to believe that most reinforcement in the human experience has little to do with physiological needs. Approval, expectance, praise, attention (your existence needs to be acknowledged) are important to us. The need to emerge our identity with another human being.  Data from Hall, Lund and Jackson had graduate students go into a grade three classroom and the teacher identify to the two graduate student the problem students and these two strangers are told just to wander through the classroom and whenever one of these problem student engaged is good behaviour the graduate student went up to that students and gave them a pat on the back and said “good boy/girl”. The desirable behaviour increased but when the praising stop the desirable behaviour decreased  Theoretical implications theorist got rid of the notion of drives, social learning theorist found little need to talk about drives because social reinforces don’t act via physiologically. The person doesn’t need to be in physiological deprivation. The introduction of self-reinforcement o Social learning theory had little need for drives because social reinforcers do not act via physiological need state o The concept of self-reinforcement emerged. Two meaning it can have for example I will study for 6 hours and then reward myself with ice cream after studying and it concerns the idea that you can react to your own actions with approval or disapproval in the same way of others. Both of these personality types can be problematic. No reinforcer has to be present in the environment o Children learn the same way they do from a adult peeling a potato. 5. Vicarious Emotional arousal vicarious learning: experiencing something through someone else. Vicarious emotional arousal is another word for empathy. This does not constitute for learning but it gives an opportunity for learning. If emotional can be experience indirectly, empathy can create the possibility for classing conditioning  “Vicarious class
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