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Lecture notes May 3 - June 9 Chapter 5: concept of drive, early formulations of drive, freud says moving force has 4 characteristics, two classes of moving forces (life and death), criticisms of freud theory Chapter 6: learning, watson and rayner's study

26 Pages

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

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MAY 26 CHAPTER 5: Drive Theory and Motivational Psychology (photocopy) I. Concept of Drive: introduced originally by Freud and Woodworth in early 1900s and replaced concept of instinct. Drive refers to an energized state arising out of need that propels organisms toward a goal that satisfies the need and reduces the drive. - When a drive is reduced, any behaviour thats successful in reducing the drive is reinforced if the behaviour doesnt work a specific time, you find a new behaviour until the behaviour has given no problems - Fixation of unsuccessful behaviour I shouldve known better, why am I repeating it now? every once in a while an unsuccessful feature becomes successful a. Drive: arises out of specific need b. Drive is channelled into general increase in behaviour (arousal) that bring organism into contact with objects that may satisfy need c. Drive induces responses that reduce need and drive - DRT (drive reduction theory) of Reinforcement d. Responses that lead to drive reduction are learned modes of conduct II. Early Formulations of Drive: Freud in early 1900s used drive concept (Trieb) as a moving force; as energy that arouses organism and initiates behaviour. a. Drive as psychic energy that accumulates in the personality structure of the id. Pressure builds and requires release b. Psychic energy builds when a need exists; when bodily functions change so does the energy build-up c. Why this reduction in energy? Energy beyond a certain point is unpleasant since organism governed by principle of constancy (which is based on some neurological studies). Reduce excitation in nervous system and this is pleasurable. Increase in excitation is not pleasurable. III. Freud said moving force (drive) has 4 characteristics: a. Pressure is strength of force and stronger the force the more motivated b. Aim of moving force is satisfaction (through reduction) c. Object of moving force may be internal or external to individual. Object may change in course of life but moving force remains the same d. Fixation of an object or restricted range of objects may occur e. Source of moving force is the need (bodily deficit from which too much excitation hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc. arises) f. Freuds Model: Need Psychic (Drive) Energy Behaviour Goal Satisfaction through need drive reduction g. EXAMPLE i. Source: need for water ii. Pressure: strength of need is great due to 36 hours water deprivation iii. Aim: pleasure through need reduction iv. Object: water that can provide need reduction. Objects provide need reduction may change throughout life and vary IV. Two classes of moving forces: Life and death Life Force: Psychic energy that powers it is eros. Life force consists of reproductive, sexual and life affirming functions. Libido is name of sexual force. Before puberty libido is separated into different stages (psycho-sexual) representing different zones of body. At puberty and after, the separate stages are fused into one: the genital stage. Also, the libido shifts to interactions that reproduce and affirm life. Yet, trauma may lead to displacement of libido onto inappropriate objects and fixation at earlier, immature stages of psycho-sexual development. Death Force: Psychic energy that powers it is called thanatos. Here, the drive is to reduce energy to zero. Aggressive behaviour is an indication of death force and is a compromise between life and death forces locked in perpetual conflict. - Repression - Hysteria o Caused by repression and is expressed through various symptoms o Treatment of Hysteria: (1) Individual must recall the traumatic experience (overcome the repression); (2) Have to express the emotion thats been blocked or inhibited (catharsis/abreaction) o Resistance occurs and disengages usually happens when the patient is feeling overwhelmed and uncomfortable o The energy thats not disposed of through recall and emotional expression becomes expressed neurotically V. Criticisms of Freuds Theory: a. Theory is empirically weak; relies on clinical evidence and interpretation b. Theory makes for a number of possible interpretations of same phenomenon c. Theory cannot predict behaviour theory explains behaviour after the fact and cannot predict behaviour 1. Drive Revisited: 1. Drive is motivational construct associated with concept of homeostasis: when there is imbalance organism is motivated to take action to correct imbalance. Drive is seen as tied to bodily needs. Organic deficiency or excess motivates organism to bring body back into balance (homeostasis). 2. Drive concept also necessary because some needs exist without activating drive, and some drives exist even though no need exists in the sense that the absence of fulfillment is life threatening. 3. Finally, all drives energize behaviour the presence of a drive causes the organism to do something, and behaviours that reduce needs reduce the drive (organism becomes inactive) homeostasis 2. Drive Revived: 1. Drive replaced instinct approaches to motivation 2. Drive, like instinct concept, is biologically based
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