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10 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2240
Rebecca Jubis

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Chapter 3 The Development of Evolutionary TheoryBiological evolutionchanges that take place in genetic and physical chracteristics of a population or group of organisms over timeAdaptive significanceeffectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adjust to changing environmental conditionspsychologists research how past environmental conditions favoured certain behaviour and how immediate envornment influences choicesinterested in ultimate causes of behaviour and proximate causesultimate causesevolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped behaviour of species over generationsproximate causes immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behaviourClark and Galefdifferent behaviour of male gerbils next to other male or female in utero tracedto presence or absense of testosterone during gestational periodsevolutionary reasonClark Desousa Vonk and Galefexamined subsequent behaviours of male gerbils who were gestated next to females when they did mate successfully gerbils were good fathersspent time in contact with pups and mates became sexually active more quickly mating stratefybetter performers or parentsby understanding adaptive behaviour developed through longterm process of evolution psychologists are able to gain better understanding of our abilities to adjust to changes in immediate environmentmembers of human species ultimate cause and have learned to act in certain ways proximate causeevolutionary psychologystudies ways which organisms evolutionary history contributes to development of behavioural patternsa nd cognitive strategies related to reproduction and survivial during lifespan culturesum of socially transmitted knowledhe customs and behaviour patterns common to particular group of people British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace also devised theory natural selection same time as DarwinVoyage of the Beagle Christs Collegedegree in Theolody met captain Fitz Roy in 1831unpaid naturalist companion on Beagle tengun brig converted to ocean research vessel that ended in 1836mission was to explore and survey coast of SA and to make hydographic measurements worldwidealmost rejected bc of shape of nose couldnt possess needed energy and determinationDarwin observed flora and fauna of South America South Africa and islands of Pacific South Atlantic and Indian oceans including Galapagoscollected creatures and objects and sent them back to England to be studied by naturalists of Europenaturalismascribed doctrine of essentialism dating back to Plato that all living things belong to fixed class or kind defined by an essence that characterizes it alonedidnt come up with theory of evolution until after trip
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