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Lecture

ch 2.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3140
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2 - Causes of Abnormal Behaviour - A paradigm is a set of shared assumptions that includes both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test the theory - Systems theory is an approach that integrates evidence on different biological, psychological, and social influences on abnormal behavior - Biological paradigm looks for biological abnormalities that might cause abnormal behavior - The psychodynamic paradigm asserts that abnormal behavior is caused by unconscious conflicts stemming from early childhood experiences (Freud) - Psychoanalytic theory divides the mind into the id (present at birth and seeks pleasure, unconcious), the ego (begins to develop in the first year of life, deals with reality, attempts to fufill the id, conscious), and the superego (societal standards of behavior, learned in later preschool years, concscience) - Defence mechanisms are unconscious self-deceptions that reduce conscious anxiety by distorting anxiety-producing memories, emotions, and impulses - The cognitive behavioral paradigm views abnormal behavior and normal behavior as the result of different forms of learning - Classical conditioning was invented by Ivan Pavlov and is learning through association and involves an unconditioned stimulus, an unconditioned response, a condiotioned stimulus, and a conditioned response - Extinction occurs once a conditioned stimulus no longer is paired with an unconditioned stimulus - Operant conditioning asserts that behavior is a function of its consequences (increases if awarded, decreases if punished) - Humanistic paradigm argues that the essence of humanity is free will, the belief that human bahviour is a voluntary choice not a product of internal or external events - Holism is a central part of systems theory and is the idea that the whole is more then the sum of its parts - Reductionism assumes that the whole is the sum of its parts, and attempts to understand problems by focusing on smaller and smaller units. Ultimate explanations are found when problems are reduced to their smallest possible components - The diathesis-stress model suggests that mental disorders only develop when a stress is added on top of a predisposition. A diathesis is a predisposition towards developing a disorder. A stress is a difficult experience. - Equifinality is that there are many routes to the same destination or disorder (multiple pathways) - Multifinality suggests that the same event can lead to different outcomes - Reciprocal causality is the idea that causality is bidirectional, is one of the most important processes identified by systems theory. - Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a steady state - Developmental psychopathology is a new approach to abnormal psychology that emphasizes the importance of developmental norms to determine what constitutes abnormal behavior - Premorbid history is a pattern of behavior that precedes the onset of the disorder - Neurons form the basic building blocks of the brain. There are four parts of a neuron: 1. The soma which is the largest part of the neuron where metabolism and maintenance are controlled and preformed 2. The dendrites branch out from the soma and receive messages from other cells 3. The axon is the trunk of the neuron where messages are transmitted to other cells 4. The axon terminal is the end of the axon where messages are sent to other neurons - The synapse is a small gap filled with fluid which seperates the axon terminal from other cells - Neurotransmitters are released into the s
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