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Chapter 3- Key Terms.docx

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PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

abstinence violation effect A feeling of loss of control that results when one has violated self-imposed rules, such as not to smoke or drink. (p. 75) assertiveness training Techniques that train people how to be appropriately assertive in social situations; often included as part of health behaviour modification programs, on the assumption that some poor health habits, such as excessive alcohol consumption or smoking, develop in part to control difficulties in being appropriately assertive. (p. 73) at risk A state of vulnerability to a particular health problem by virtue of heredity, health practices, or family environment. (p. 52) behavioural assignments Home practice activities that clients perform on their own as part of an integrated therapeutic intervention for behaviour modification. (p. 72) broad-spectrum cognitive behaviour therapy The use of a broad array of cognitive-behavioural intervention techniques to modify an individual’s health behaviour. (p. 73) classical conditioning The pairing of a stimulus with an unconditioned reflex, such that over time the new stimulus acquires a conditioned response, evoking the same behaviour; the process by which an automatic response is conditioned to a new stimulus. (p. 69) cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) The use of principles from learning theory to modify the cognitions and behaviours associated with a behaviour to be modified; cognitive-behavioural approaches are used to modify poor health habits, such as smoking, poor diet, and alcoholism. (p. 69) cognitive restructuring A method of modifying internal monologues in stress-producing situations; clients are trained to monitor what they say to themselves in stress-provoking situations and then to modify their cognitions in adaptive ways. (p. 72) contingency contracting A procedure in which an individual forms a contract with another person, such as a therapist, detailing what rewards or punishments are contingent on the performance or nonperformance of a target behaviour. (p. 72) covert self-control The manipulation and alteration of private events, such as thoughts, through principles of reinforcement and self-instruction. (p. 72) discriminative stimulus An environmental stimulus that is capable of eliciting a particular behaviour; for example, the sight of food may act as a discriminative stimulus for eating. (p. 71) expectancy-value theory The theory that suggests that people will choose to engage in behaviours that they expect to succeed in and that have outcomes that they value. (p. 63) fear appeals Efforts to change attitudes by arousing fear to induce the motivation to change behaviour; fear appeals are used to try to get people to change poor health habits. (p. 62) health behaviours Behaviours undertaken by people to enhance or maintain their health, such as exercise or the consumption of a healthy diet. (p. 53) health belief model A theory of health behaviours; the model predicts that whether a person practises a particular health habit can be understood by knowing the degree to which the person perceives a personal health threat and the perception that a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threat. (p. 63) health habit A health-related behaviour that is firmly established and often performed automatically, such as buckling a seat belt or brushing one’s teeth. (p. 53) health locus of control The perception that one’s health is under personal control; is controlled by powerful others, such as physicians; or is determined by external factors, including chance. (p. 54) health promotion A general philosophy that maintains that health is a personal and collective achievement; the process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion may occur through individual efforts, through interaction with the medical system, and through a concerted health policy effort. (p. 52) health risk assessment An assessment designed to identify employees’ specific risks based on cu r rent age, family history, and lifestyle factors that provide employers with a general view of their employees’ health and areas for improvement. (p. 80) implementation intentions A specific behavioral intention that highlights the how, when, and where of a behaviour, and also includes “if-then” contingency plans to deal with anticipated barriers to the behaviour. (p. 66) lifestyle rebalancing Concerted lifestyle change in a healthy
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