PSYC 3230 Lecture Notes - Belief, Aaron T. Beck, Cognitive Bias

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31 Jan 2013

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Discovered Freud's approach didn't work
Incorporated a few approaches into his own which he used to cure his phobia of public speaking when he was 19
"We disturb ourselves"-- it is not caused by an external factor
"Musterbation"-- if you're stuck with "I'd like to do well," but not MUST do well, then you would not disturb yourself
Being told by therapist you're thinking wrong won't cure you
Mind will influence matter. Requires work and practice , cognitive technique to help people change how they think
Depression-- horror, must not be this way. Has individual difference in what you tell yourself
Taking a desire and escalating it into a demand, a must. I.e., Having leprosy, being tortured to death- doesn’t justify going into state of horror, depression. Does justify “I don’t
like this, what can i do about it?” won't happen if you’re in a state of horror. Change basic philosophy of how you think to be better
Rational Emotive Therapy: Albert Ellis
Mary loses her job
Activating experience
"I'm a failure"
Belief system
Mary becomes depressed
Therapist challenges her belief
Mary puts changed belief to work
Five steps of Rational-Emotive Therapy
When you ask people what's wrong, hard to believe them because they often don't know themselves. Clinicians should be set up as "data collectors" to ultimately help
them find out about themselves
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)
Dichotomous thinking-- everything is either good or bad, up or down
Negative representation of themselves as indicated in their dreams, then would get cognitive distortions
Negative beliefs would act as prison and block out positive beliefs
Interpretations of what was going on will be distorted
Particularly in patients who are depressed
Albert Ellis
Borrowed techniques and now have people (challenged to) explore, evaluate their ordinary thoughts
What happened when started to have people looking at automatic thoughts, they started to get better
Negative thinking + distortions = what do you do about it? (analytic therapy)
Organization (Mood Clinic)-- further research on cognitive model of depression (need patients, need to offer them something [therapy])
CBT treatment worked better long term than the drugs
Patients in treatment for 12 weeks-- patients got better (as opposed to drug treated)
Academic work:
Behavior activation-- give them series of activities and let them rate them. I.e., making a phone call (mastery experience)
They have pleasurable experiences but don't remember them
Even severe depressive will respond better than the drugs, but has to be adapted to each individual. Can't start right away with cognitive therapy, need to get them activated,
then can neutralize their negative beliefs about themselves
Severely depressed: high incidence of loss of parent in childhood. Parental loss quite high then, world war 1 or influenza epidemic. Parental loss occurred significantly
only in severe, not moderate and normally not in not depressed. People become vulnerable to depression to losing a parent in childhood, have a similar occurrence
later in life, then they get depressed. Second part of equation= loss in adulthood. Childhood loss and adult loss- some sort of correlation. Childhood trauma can
predispose people to bad things happening later on
Not everybody who has a childhood loss and an adult loss get depressed. Something constitutionally that makes people more vulnerable to trauma? People who had
the Blue gene + childhood trauma= more predisposed to trauma. People with gene but without trauma did not get depressed. With gene + childhood loss =
In relation to CBT: if people have this gene (serotonin- neurotransmitters, dopamine) and receive certain psychological manipulations, shows at that age they already
have a cognitive bias. More likely to see negative faces then happy faces then people who do not have the gene. Already a kind of disposition represented in negative
cognitive bias. More likely to develop depressive symptoms later on. Also show negative attitudes (Dysfunctional Negative Scale) and if they have the blue gene +
negative attitudes = more likely to get depressive later on if subjected to stress.
Now gets a biological explanation for his previous theory. Much more complete picture for how depression develops. How neurological as well as psychological.
Study: Moderately depressed, depressed, not depressed
Do people have a certain vulnerability to depression?
1) Careful studies-- most therapies don't have careful research to back them up. A year later CBT and drugs -- changes in CBT were maintained, but drug therapy was not
2) Genetic influences were no genetically predisposed to depression but to negative mindset-- which is changeable. Quite different than saying this person will have
depression because of this gene
Two different cognitive therapies but the people who developed them are also quite different. Both are painting the role to our cognitive framework
Cognitive Therapy: Aaron Beck
Both Beck and Ellis started out with psychoanalysis-- takes about 2 years to treat. CBT is a couple of treatments, able to pay attention to what is working and what is not
Both interested in applying science and seeing if these really work. Not with analytic theory-- doesn't solve people's problems, but they don't know any different
Intellect vs. Emotion
Monday, January 14, 2013
10:58 AM
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