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PSYC 3260
Carly Mc Morris

COGNITION PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE: MARCH 7TH, 2013 ➔ Exam 2: same format as first test (100 MC and 4 SA) ➔ Storing Information in LTM ◦ Encoding: acquiring information and transforming it into memory ◦ Maintenance rehearsal ◦ Maintains information but does not transfer it to LTM ◦ Elaborative rehearsal ◦ Transfers information to LTM ▪ Encoding → the process in which we use to remember something ▪ Coding → the way the info is represented ▪ Maintaining info → repeating a person's number you just learned over and over ▪ Elaborative rehearsal strategies → connecting the info with what you already know. It is then stored in your LTM ▪ Young kids use simple rehearsal strategies while adults use more complex methods ➔ Levels of Processing Theory ◦ Memory depends on how information is encoded ◦ Depth of processing ◦ Shallow processing: little attention to meaning (poor memory) ◦ Deep processing: close attention to meaning (good memory) ▪ Shallow processing → more likely to attend to the physical features of the words we are suppose to remember ▪ S.P. Typically occurs during maintenance rehearsal ▪ Deep processing → occurs during elaborative rehearsal ➔ REFER TO FIGURE ◦ Ask to fill in blanks → remember more ➔ Beware of Circular Reasoning ◦ Which task causes deeper processing? ◦ Using a word in a sentence ◦ Deciding how useful an object might be on a desert island ◦ Can empirically measure the memory trace in each condition ◦ Conclude that stronger memory trace must have been caused by deeper processing ▪ You cannot use memory performance to predict depth of processing and vice versa ▪ Depth of processing has not been defined independently of memory performance ➔ Other Factors that Aid Encoding ◦ Creating connections and cues for remembering ◦ Imagery ◦ Creating connections, cues for remembering ◦ Self reference effect → try to relate word or object to yourself ◦ Generation effect → generate your own sentence (use your own way of remembering rather than someone telling you how to ◦ Organizing to be remembered information → organizational tree, story (organized info) ◦ Testing → re reading over notes you think you would do good on a test but re testing yourself on this info would result in better memory ▪ Rogers Study in 1977 ** ON EXAM** ▪ Presented participants with 4 questions (physical aspects of happy, then rhyming words-- what rhymes with happy, meaning—word that has the same meaning as happy, self reference—reference whether or not you see yourself as happy) pause and then a word ▪ Then answer yes or no have you seen this word before ▪ Recall: he obtained the results in figure 7.4 ▪ Words rated as describing themselves (self reference effect) : do you feel....happy? If they make this connection to themselves → REMEMBER BETTER ▪ Reference to yourself → remember better than trying to just remember its meaning and such ▪ KNOW SELF REFERENCE CONCEPT FOR EXAM!!! ➔ Organization, Comprehension, Memory ◦ Bransford & Johnson (1972) ◦ Presented participants with difficult to comprehend information ◦ Experimental Group 1 first saw a picture that helped explain the information ◦ Experimental Group 2 saw the picture after reading the passage ◦ Control Group did not see the picture ◦ Group 1 outperformed the others. ◦ Having a mental framework of comprehension aided memory encoding and retrieval ▪ The picture helped them understand and remember ➔ Test Effect ◦ Which results in a stronger memory trace? ◦ Rereading the material ◦ Being tested on the material ◦ Roediger and Karpicke (2006) had participants read a passage and then either ◦ Recall as much as they could ◦ Reread the passage ◦ Tested recall after ▪ Stronger memory trace when tested on the material rather than simply reading it over ➔ REFER TO FIGURE ◦ Green → re read info ◦ Orange → tested after re calling info ◦ Similar performance between the two ◦ Longer the delay → differences occur ◦ 1 week → testing group recalled a lot more ➔ Retrieving Info From LTM ◦ Retrieval: process of transferring information from LTM back into working memory (consciousness) ◦ Most of our failures of memory are failures to retrieve ◦ Cued recall: cue presented to aid recall (increased response, accuracy) ◦ Increased performance over free recall ◦ Retrieval cues most effective when created by the person who uses them ▪ Cue enhances memory ▪ Self reference retrieval cues (cues you created yourself) → every person's way of retrieving info in terms of using cues is diff. Not everyone could use the same cue ➔ Encoding Specificity ◦ We learn information together with its context ◦ Baddeley’s (1975) “diving experiment” ◦ Best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval occurred in the same location ▪ REFER TO GRAPH ▪ Within context → at the library its quiet ▪ Retrieving info and context go hand in hand ▪ Diving experiment → got people to go under water in scuba diving outfits and asked them to remember a list of words and the other group learned a list of words on land ▪ Then for recall: half the people under water were asked recall the info under water and had half of those on land go under water and then recall it. Those who had to learn the words under water and recall did better (within same context) ▪ Best recall → when you are in the same location (study in classroom where exam will be) ➔ State-Dependent Learning ◦ Learning is associated with a particular internal state ◦ Better memory if person’s mood at encoding matches mood during retrieval ▪ REFER TO FIGURE ▪ Internal state → mood, awareness ▪ Do better when you are in the same mood when you were studying and when you are doing your test rather than two different mental states ➔ Improving Learning and Memory ◦ Elaborate ▪ Highlighting is not enough ◦ Generate and test ▪ Regenerate into a story – remember better, test self after wards ◦ Organize ▪ Helps reduce load on memory ▪ Reorganize info so that you remember ◦ Match learning and testing conditions ◦ Associate what you are learning to what you already know ◦ Avoid the “illusion of learning” ▪ Familiarity does not mean comprehension ◦ Take breaks ▪ Memory is better for multiple short study sessions ◦ Distributed versus massed practice effect ▪ Difficult to maintain close attention throughout a long study session ▪ Studying after a break gives feedback about what you already know • Cramming → shallow memory ➔ Info Storage at the Synapse ◦ Hebb (1948) ◦ Learning and memory represented in the brain by physiological changes at the synapse ◦ Neural record of experience ◦ Longterm potentiation (LTP) ◦ Enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation ◦ Structural changes and enhanced responding ▪ Similar to distributed coding ▪ Every experience you have changes at the synapse level ▪ Experience causes nerve impulse, travels down axon to a second neuron and impulses are released onto that neuron ▪ Activity between the neurons strengthens the synapse by causing structural changes → provides neural record of experience ▪ All experiences result in changes (how we learn info) in our synapses ▪ Synaptic changes and structural changes ▪ LTP → outcome of the changes in the synapses results in this ▪ Fire more rapidly after being exposed to same experience ▪ Memories are represented by patterns of firing by your neurons which cause structural changes in brain ➔ Where Does Memory Occur in the Brain? ◦ REFER TO FIGURE ◦ Memory occurs in Hippocampus ◦ Perirhinal and Amygdala are also involved in memory ◦ Amygdala → emotion ◦ Episodic memory → related to personal experiences therefore amygdala would come into play as well as in cases in trauma ◦ Autobiographical memory → amygdala would be activated (related to episodic, personal and semantic memories) → facts about your life → emotion related ➔ Consolidation ◦ Memory for recent events is more fragile than for remote events ◦ Transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state ◦ Synaptic consolidation Systems consolidation ◦ Standard model of consolidation ◦ Retrieval depends on hippocampus during consolidation; after consolidation hippocampus is no longer needed ◦ Reactivation: hippocampus replays neural activity associated with memory ▪ Synaptic consolidation: occurs at synapses, happens rapidly ▪ Systems consolidation: involves gradual reorganization of circuits in brain ▪ More recent memories are more fragile ▪ Consolidation → memories from fragile state to more solid state ▪ Multiple Trace Hypothesis • Questions the assumption that the Hippocampus is important only at the beginning of consolidation and that after that it is not necessary • Other theories state this is false • Hippocampus is activated in retrieval for both recent and later memories → when you try to retrieve info you use your hippocampus and when you consolidate you are also using it • These models differ on the role of the Hippocampus • Standard method says Hippocampus is only for retrieval and not consolidation ➔ Chapter 8: Autobiographical Memory (AM) **IMPORTANT** ◦ Recollected events that belong to a person’s past ◦ Mental time travel ◦ Multidimensional ◦ Spatial, emotional, and sensory components ◦ Sensory component ▪ Also include facts: related to you and your personal experiences ▪ Patients who cannot recognize objects also experience loss of autobiographical memory (type of amnesia) ▪ Visual experience plays a role forming and retrieving (AM) ➔ Cont'd ◦ Cabeza and coworkers (2004) ◦ Comparing brain activation caused by autobiographical memory and laboratory memory ◦ Participants viewed Photographs they took (Autobiographical photos) or Photographs taken by someone else (lab photos) ▪ IMPORTANT!!!!! ➔ Cont'd ◦ Both types of photos activated brain structures associated with ◦ Episodic memory → memory of previous experiences ◦ Processing scenes ◦ Aphotos also activated brain structures associated with ◦ Processing info about the self ◦ Memory for visual space ◦ Mental time travel memory ◦ Very rich memories ▪ Can also elicit emotions: amygdala ➔ REFER TO FIGURE ◦ Top part left (activation in both) ◦ Top right: activation same for both ◦ Just a-photos: more activation in other areas ➔ Memory Over the LifeSpan ◦ What events are remembered well? ◦ Significant events in a person’s life (graduate, married, baby) ◦ Highly emotional events (positive or negative) ◦ Transition points (moving from high school to university etc) ◦ Reminiscence Bump ▪ Memory in adults ▪ What events over your life span
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