PSYC 3260 Lecture Notes - Times New Roman, Episodic Memory, Action Potential

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
York University
PSYC 3260
Exam 2: same format as first test (100 MC and 4 SA)
Storing Information in LTM
Encoding: acquiring information and transforming it into memory
Maintenance rehearsal
Maintains information but does not transfer it to LTM
Elaborative rehearsal
Transfers information to LTM
Encoding → the process in which we use to remember something
Coding → the way the info is represented
Maintaining info → repeating a person's number you just learned over and over
Elaborative rehearsal strategies → connecting the info with what you already know. It is then stored
in your LTM
Young kids use simple rehearsal strategies while adults use more complex methods
Levels of Processing Theory
Memory depends on how information is encoded
Depth of processing
Shallow processing: little attention to meaning (poor memory)
Deep processing: close attention to meaning (good memory)
Shallow processing → more likely to attend to the physical features of the words we are suppose to
S.P. Typically occurs during maintenance rehearsal
Deep processing → occurs during elaborative rehearsal
Ask to fill in blanks → remember more
Beware of Circular Reasoning
Which task causes deeper processing?
Using a word in a sentence
Deciding how useful an object might be on a desert island
Can empirically measure the memory trace in each condition
Conclude that stronger memory trace must have been caused by deeper processing
You cannot use memory performance to predict depth of processing and vice versa
Depth of processing has not been defined independently of memory performance
Other Factors that Aid Encoding
Creating connections and cues for remembering
Creating connections, cues for remembering
Self reference effect → try to relate word or object to yourself
Generation effect → generate your own sentence (use your own way of remembering rather than
someone telling you how to
Organizing to be remembered information → organizational tree, story (organized info)
Testing → re reading over notes you think you would do good on a test but re testing yourself on this
info would result in better memory
Rogers Study in 1977 ** ON EXAM**
Presented participants with 4 questions (physical aspects of happy, then rhyming words-- what
rhymes with happy, meaning—word that has the same meaning as happy, self reference—reference
whether or not you see yourself as happy) pause and then a word
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Then answer yes or no have you seen this word before
Recall: he obtained the results in figure 7.4
Words rated as describing themselves (self reference effect) : do you feel....happy? If they make this
connection to themselves → REMEMBER BETTER
Reference to yourself → remember better than trying to just remember its meaning and such
Organization, Comprehension, Memory
Bransford & Johnson (1972)
Presented participants with difficult to comprehend information
Experimental Group 1 first saw a picture that helped explain the information
Experimental Group 2 saw the picture after reading the passage
Control Group did not see the picture
Group 1 outperformed the others.
Having a mental framework of comprehension aided memory encoding and retrieval
The picture helped them understand and remember
Test Effect
Which results in a stronger memory trace?
Rereading the material
Being tested on the material
Roediger and Karpicke (2006) had participants read a passage and then either
Recall as much as they could
Reread the passage
Tested recall after
Stronger memory trace when tested on the material rather than simply reading it over
Green → re read info
Orange → tested after re calling info
Similar performance between the two
Longer the delay → differences occur
1 week → testing group recalled a lot more
Retrieving Info From LTM
Retrieval: process of transferring information from LTM back into working memory (consciousness)
Most of our failures of memory are failures to retrieve
Cued recall: cue presented to aid recall (increased response, accuracy)
Increased performance over free recall
Retrieval cues most effective when created by the person who uses them
Cue enhances memory
Self reference retrieval cues (cues you created yourself) → every person's way of retrieving info in
terms of using cues is diff. Not everyone could use the same cue
Encoding Specificity
We learn information together with its context
Baddeley’s (1975) “diving experiment
Best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval occurred in the same location
Within context → at the library its quiet
Retrieving info and context go hand in hand
Diving experiment → got people to go under water in scuba diving outfits and asked them to
remember a list of words and the other group learned a list of words on land
Then for recall: half the people under water were asked recall the info under water and had half of
those on land go under water and then recall it. Those who had to learn the words under water and
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recall did better (within same context)
Best recall → when you are in the same location (study in classroom where exam will be)
State-Dependent Learning
Learning is associated with a particular internal state
Better memory if person’s mood at encoding matches mood during retrieval
Internal state → mood, awareness
Do better when you are in the same mood when you were studying and when you are doing your
test rather than two different mental states
Improving Learning and Memory
Highlighting is not enough
Generate and test
Regenerate into a story – remember better, test self after wards
Helps reduce load on memory
Reorganize info so that you remember
Match learning and testing conditions
Associate what you are learning to what you already know
Avoid the “illusion of learning
Familiarity does not mean comprehension
Take breaks
Memory is better for multiple short study sessions
Distributed versus massed practice effect
Difficult to maintain close attention throughout a long study session
Studying after a break gives feedback about what you already know
Cramming → shallow memory
Info Storage at the Synapse
Hebb (1948)
Learning and memory represented in the brain by physiological changes at the synapse
Neural record of experience
Longterm potentiation (LTP)
Enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation
Structural changes and enhanced responding
Similar to distributed coding
Every experience you have changes at the synapse level
Experience causes nerve impulse, travels down axon to a second neuron and impulses are released
onto that neuron
Activity between the neurons strengthens the synapse by causing structural changes → provides
neural record of experience
All experiences result in changes (how we learn info) in our synapses
Synaptic changes and structural changes
LTP → outcome of the changes in the synapses results in this
Fire more rapidly after being exposed to same experience
Memories are represented by patterns of firing by your neurons which cause structural changes in
Where Does Memory Occur in the Brain?
Memory occurs in Hippocampus
Perirhinal and Amygdala are also involved in memory
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Document Summary

Exam 2: same format as first test (100 mc and 4 sa) Typically occurs during maintenance rehearsal: deep processing occurs during elaborative rehearsal. Refer to figure: ask to fill in blanks remember more. If they make this connection to themselves remember better: reference to yourself remember better than trying to just remember its meaning and such, know self reference concept for exam!! Refer to figure: green re read info, orange tested after re calling info, similar performance between the two, longer the delay differences occur, 1 week testing group recalled a lot more. Those who had to learn the words under water and recall did better (within same context: best recall when you are in the same location (study in classroom where exam will be) Questions the assumption that the hippocampus is important only at the beginning of consolidation and that after that it is not necessary.

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