PSYC 3290 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Episodic Memory, Connectionism, Semantic Memory

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Psycholinguistics Jan 11:
** Big on slides **
-- Basic grammatical concepts:
1. Duality of Patterning
Phoneme: Can be described in terms of several distinctive features
Distinctive feature: characteristic of a speech sound whose presence (+) or absence (-)
distinguishes the sound from other sounds.
-Voicing:
-Place of articulation
-Manner of articulation: ex. V & P, when you say V the vocal chords vibrate, when you say P
they don't.
2. Morphology
Morphology: System of rules related to the way in which we use different forms of words to
convey differences in meaning.
Morpheme: The smallest language unit that carries meaning
--> Free morpheme: A morpheme that can stand on its own
--> Bound morpheme: A morpheme that must be connected to another morpheme
ER --> Known as pseudo suffix, doesn't count as a word.
ex. Corner --> NOT 2 words (corn & corner) because ER counts are pseudo suffix
3. Phrase structure:
Sentences can be divided into parts/ constituents/ groups of words
-> ex. separate the noun phrase from the vern phrase
--> ( The little girl ) ( ate the chocolate cookie)
NP VP
Phrase-structure rules and ambiguity:
ex. Ronald told Frank that he has a positive outlook on life --> The "HE" could mean either
Ronald or Frank.
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Document Summary

- basic grammatical concepts: duality of patterning. Phoneme: can be described in terms of several distinctive features. Distinctive feature: characteristic of a speech sound whose presence (+) or absence (-) distinguishes the sound from other sounds. V & p, when you say v the vocal chords vibrate, when you say p they don"t: morphology. Morphology: system of rules related to the way in which we use different forms of words to convey differences in meaning. Morpheme: the smallest language unit that carries meaning. -> free morpheme: a morpheme that can stand on its own. -> bound morpheme: a morpheme that must be connected to another morpheme. Er --> known as pseudo suffix, doesn"t count as a word. ex. Corner --> not 2 words (corn & corner) because er counts are pseudo suffix: phrase structure: Sentences can be divided into parts/ constituents/ groups of words. > ex. separate the noun phrase from the vern phrase.

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