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Lecture 5

CuP - Lecture 5 (Feb 2).docx

Course Code
PSYC 3350
Francois Lalonde

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Lecture 5 Self & Personality (Feb 2)
Exam Next Week2.5 hours
70 MC
6 Short Answers
Not interested in dates
Names big names...not specific names on experimental papers except for ones we have
to read i.e. Inglehart
Proposal due Feb 16
Brief paragraph describing topic or research question
References for 2 journal articles that are directly related to your research question
You must submit a hard copy of your proposal during class on February 16, in order to
receive 3% towards your final grade. Do not email them
Feedback will not be provided. This proposal is meant to get you started on the right
track. If you do wish to discuss the proposal, please visit the TA during office hours
Self and Personality
Who am I?
o Independent and interdependent self-construal
Self consistency
Self awareness
Implicit theories of the self
o Self & control
How we perceive ourselves
The self concept implicated in
o Directing what information we should attend to
o The kinds of meaning that we draw from events
o The kinds of relationships that we have
o Our emotions and motivations
Who Am I?
“I am ____.”
The kinds of statements listed are counted and analyzed
People from some different cultures often provide different kinds of statements
Structure of the Self
Ma & Schoeneman (1995)
Comparison of American college students with various groups in Kenya traditional
including some tribal groups

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When giving self descriptors, American and Nairobi undergrads focused on personal
descriptors, whereas workers in Nairobi as well as Masai and Samburu focused on roles
and memberships
Self within a Nation: European-Americans vs. Native Americans
European American students described themselves more in terms of inner attributes than
did Native Americans
EA used more positive traits and abilities than Native Americans
Independent vs. Interdependent Views of Self
Markus and Kitayama (1991)
What is known in social psychology, has been primarily studied with people who share
an independent view of the self
An interdependent view of the self is more common in much of the non-Western world
The Independent View of Self
Is illustrated as the individual being in the centre
o Friends, mother, brother, etc. directly surround the individual within their “inner
o Partially outside of the circle (on the border) exists acquaintances of family
members or friends
o Outside of the circle are strangers
Identity experience as largely independent from others
Important aspects of identity are personal characteristics
Identity remains constant across roles and situations
Considerable fluidity between in-groups and out-groups
Interdependent View of Self
Is illustrated by an individual with traits and is closely overlapped with friends, parents,
siblings, etc. showing that they share certain characteristics and illustrates that they are
interdependent with others
o Similarly, acquaintances are within the in-group and strangers outside, the out-
Individuals identity is importantly interdependent with others
Key aspects of identity included roles, relationships and memberships
As roles change across situations, identity is more fluid across situations
Clear distinction between in-groups and out-groups
o It is harder for a stranger to become acquainted with the individual that has an
interdependent view of self
Individualism & Collectivism
Canada, U.S.A, Great Britain and Australia rate high in individualism (80-91)
o As you move East, countries such as China, have low degrees of individualism
Not meant to be a dichotomy

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People embody varying degrees of both
o While Canadians are generally individualistic, some are collectivistic, and some
are more/less individualistic than others
Cultural Variability and Differences
There is usually more within-group variability on a given cultural construct (e.g.
interdependence) than between-group variability
o Normally different cultures will overlap and share some characteristics
Why I Am Who I Am
Neural evidence for this distinction?
o Participants used a list of adjectives to evaluate themselves and their mothers
Westerners showed different regions of activation
Chinese showed activation in the same regions (medial prefrontal cortex:
region linked to self-representations)
Feature study: views of the self & deriving meaning from action
o US media will focus on personal attributes of Olympic athletes (disjoint model of
o Japanese media focus will be more distributed: attributes + history, state and
significant others (conjoint model of agency)
Views of the self deriving meaning from action
USA more focused on personal attributes and the competition
Japan media more distributed in attention to various factors
o i.e. personal characteristics, competition, emotional state, reaction to performance
media both reflects and guides culture
Table 2 of paper (Markus et a. 2006, Study 2)
o US > Japanese students focused on personal attributes & uniqueness; Japanese >
US for coach motivation, emotion and doubt
o Japanese more balance in selection of positive and negative information
In South Korea, Brian Orser was the coach of figure skater Kim-Yu Na
o When they split up, it was big news in South Korea
o This shows the emphasis that they place on the coach as well as the player,
something not evident in Canada
Culture and Self-Consistency
The interdependent self should be more contextually variable than the independent self
o We all change our behaviour when were in different contexts
Different situations call for different roles
Given that the identity of the interdependent self is grounded in roles, it should vary
across situations
Kanagawa et. al. (2001) Japanese and American students complete 20 statements test in
1 of 4 different situations
o Independent Variable: alone, with peers, in professor’s office, and in a large class
o Dependent Variable: positivity of self-descriptors
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