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Lecture 3

PSYC 3430 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Abraham Maslow, Evolutionary Psychology, Ageism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3430
Professor
Peter K Papadogiannis
Lecture
3

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Inclusion and Identity
Today’s agenda:
Examine an individual's need to belong
Inclusion and exclusion - the impact of being excluded
Individualism and collectivism continuum
Process of personal to social identity
Examine how viewing oneself as a member of a group has consequence
Questions to consider
Which group do you currently identify most?
What does this group mean to you?
How has this group shaped you personally?
How would you feel if this group was gone? - Or if that group ostracizes you.
The need to belong
Baumeister & Leary (1995) - all humans have a pervasive drive to form and maintain
lasting positive and impactful interpersonal relationships (social, cognitive, biological)
Social motivation and imp of others
They believe that it is innate or have social groups
Believes that when groups are not a part of our life anymore, it
may render us incapacitated - that you cannot think or act the
same way. Just like not having food or shelter will eventually
incapacitate you.
Only until recently have people started looking at social
pain - we looked at physical pain - and we looked at brain
networks and neural networks. When people feel social or
emotional pain - the neural network is almost the same as
physical pain
If this person leaves your life for good, how would
you feel?
Evolutionary theory ageism that some group behaviours may be rooted in
physiological processes
Evolutionary psychology suggests this instinct resulted from natural selection -
allowing for preporucite success and approach vs avoidance
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over others.
Physiological needs like breathing, thirst and hunger come before psychological needs
such as achievement, self esteem and the need for recognition
Motivational model - long term motivation stage model
Believed that there are needs, organized from most criminate and basic to most complex
and dynamic

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Maslow’s hierarchy of motives
Human needs organized; arranged from most basic to personal and advance needs
Lower needs must be met first or higher needs cannot operate onto our next need
No time frames on how long it takes from one to the other
No information on going backwards
Chapter 2 (52-53)
For test 1 know them in order, starting from the bottom and know the description on each
1. Physiological needs - the most important
When you are deficient, your body will warn you - you will be physically motivated
to take this one on
2. Safety needs
feeling comfortable, secure and safe in their environments
3. Love and belonging
The need to feel connected- deeper level connection
4. Esteem needs
Your feelings and your way of thinking about yourself - meaning to your life - your
level of competence. - to gain some knowledge, to apply some knowledge.
3 and 4 go together.
5. Self actualisation
Few people will get there but people will strive for it
The people who do get there, they focus less on themselves, and focus more on
others.
Examples where number 3 is number 1 - where the need to be connected to someone else is
number 1?
When u are excluded from your groups is different.

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Issues
Studied in various contexts of people who purposely isolate themselves purposefully.
- The forcing of being alone is the focus of the chapter.
Solitary confinement
Solitary adventurers
All find negative reactions to isolation
Studies of people who agree to isolate - a different emotional experience
(reduced or eliminate contact) - ostracizes, rejected, shunned, avoided.
Do humans prefer solitude or membership in groups
Exclusion is aversive and avoided - there are negative outcomes that are associated
with being excluded:
Ostracism - excluding one or more individuals from a group by reducing or
eliminating contact - you are not having any contacted with any group
Forms of exclusion: ignored, avoided, shunning (both social and physical)
Forms of inclusion: granted membership, welcomes, recruited
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