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Lecture 8

REI 3350 Lecture 8: Nov 13 - Turks in Germany- Citizens or Sojourners .pdf

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Race, Ethnicity and Indigeneity
Course Code
REI 3350
Ramin Jahanbelgloo

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November 13, 2014: Turks in Germany: Citizens or Sojourners Readings: Barbara Freyer Stowaswer, 'Turks in Germany: From sojourners to Citizens' in Y. Yazbeck Haddad, ed. Mulsim in The West, From Sojourners to Citizens, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 52- 71. 9780195148053.001.0001/acprof-9780195148053-chapter-4 - The then exclusivist FRG 1965 Foreigners Act stipulated that rights of entrance and residence of foreign workers depended on “the interests of the German state” - German policies, with their own original, restrictive hiring patterns - this was especially true during the 1966–7 temporary downturn in the German economy, when labor migration from abroad was largely halted. - The essentially political concept of French nationhood developed within the territorially and institutionally centralized framework of the pre- as well as post-1789 French state, where French political unity provided the basis for the definition of French cultural unity, including policies of assimilation of cultural minorities and foreign immigrants. - Germany developed its notion of national identity “between supernational Empire and the subnational profusion of sovereign and semisovereign political units,” where “the conglomerative pattern of state building in polycentric, biconfessional, even (in Prussia) binational Germany was the historical matrix for a more differentialist self- understaning.” - legal notion that citizenship is based on blood ties, that is, descent from German parents—ius sanguinis as opposed to the ius soli, under which citizenship is based on something more “territorial,” such as birth, residence, or other circumstantial criteria - Large numbers of immigrants from neighboring countries arrived in Germany during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, partly to escape religious persecution at home and partly to find land and work made available by the rulers of the many German principalities and kingdoms - Swiss, French, Austrian, Bohemian, Polish, Dutch, Swedish, Italian, and other immigrants were given citizenship rights. - In the nineteenth century, Germany's economic development and rapid industrialization intensified both internal migration and also immigration from abroad - Between 1945 and German unification in 1990, nearly twenty million people migrated or immigrated into the Federal Republic, the former “West Germany.” - The second wave of postwar migrant, legally nonimmigrant populations arrived between the mid-1950s and the early 1970s. They were the foreign laborers whom the German government recruited abroad to meet the needs of its expanding economy. - That ordinance permitted non-EEC foreigners with a five-year employment record to apply for special five-year work and residence permits. - The period of official German foreign-labor recruitment lasted until the “recruitment halt” (Anwerbestopp) of November 1973, itself a function of a major decline in the German economy in the wake of the oil embargo. - The halt was accompanied by a program of financial incentives designed to motivate the foreign workers to leave Germany. - By 1990, 34 percent of all foreign workers, and 32 percent of the foreign resident population, were Turks. In the early 1990s, almost two million Turkish citizens lived in Germany. - Contrary to what the German legislators had had in mind, the 1973 recruitment halt actually increased the number of foreigners in Germany. It also transformed the status of the original migrant laborers into that of resident aliens and changed the national and social profile of the foreign community as a whole - Since the 1970s, generous social support services such as unemployment benefits, children's allowances, medical insurance, access to vocational training and the like rendered residence in Germany financially attractive to the guest workers. - To many Germans, these workers represented a drain on the German budget that the original architects of the recruitment system had not foreseen. - It has also been argued, however, that by 1973–1974 the migrant/immigrant workers were no longer merely an industrial reserve but had become structurally integrated into the labor market, paying back more into the system than they received through social services and public facilities. - The fall of the German Democratic Republic in 1989 and German reunification in 1990 only temporarily lessened the intensity of the national debate. - The Turkish migrants who arrived in Germany between the early 1960s and the mid- 1970s were largely urbanized or semiurbanized, skilled and semiskilled workers. - Their exodus from cities and towns in Turkey was contrary to the intention of the original Turkish planners, who had anticipated a system of direct rural-to-foreign migration of unskilled labor. - Overcharging of foreign worker renters for poor or substandard housing by German landlords has continued to the present. - Turkish families in metropolitan areas still live predominantly in inner
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