-Whereas nationalities may be deﬁned as masculine, there is a tendency to see culture as the domain
of women, and an effective means of securing a sense of community and ethnic identity.
-Younger women may choose to replace the traditional scarf, such as those worn by their mothers, with
the stricter hijab, which covers the head and is not loosely hung on shoulders, but often they also
discard the traditional shelvar kamiz in favour of jeans and loose shirts.
-First-generation migrant women construct their own power base by reconstructing their ‘nations’
through stories, food and networks that create a functional power base for them within the domestic
-Thus, of necessity, ‘cuisine’, which may be recognized as an important cultural signiﬁer becomes
diluted and changed, and frequently acquires British characteristics included for convenience and
-Women, who have been the bearers of nations, have been given the nationalities of their fathers and
husbands, and when migrating have lost their birthrights to their homelands, only to acquire that of the
male on whom they have been deﬁned as a ‘dependant’.
-They are subject to laws and requirements that are formulated and articulated as if all citizens were
-Education and the Islamic principle that places no intermediaries between people and God allow
Muslim women to strive for their own deﬁnition of the true Islam and to defend their own interpretations
against obfuscating scholarship
-these women, who have been educated in Britain and have chosen to wear the formal hijab, construct
a ‘new ... British form of Islam’ with a degree of liberalism and individualism.
-The hijab can also provide a means of escape, of free movement and the possibility for women of
going to school and particularly to university.
-The negative outcomes in recent years have little to do with the young women and much to do with
government decisions to make hijab a major political issue
-Islamophobia may be a more understandable reason for the French government’s decision to ban the
-In the Western world, the hijab has come to symbolize either forced silence or radical unconscionable
-The decision to wear modest garments in general, and the hijab in particular, as a deliberate choice of
many Muslim women, had in the ﬁrst instance been an assertion of faith and an act of solidarity with
-Frequently, the women who chose to wear the veil did not come from families who practised seclusion
or insisted on the wearing of the hijab; usually their mothers and grandmothers dressed modestly, and
if from the subcontinent, often wore the ‘traditional’ sari or shelvar kamiz, but not the hijab.
-The head-cover that has been worn by young women, particularly in the West, is very much a late-
twentieth-century, Western product.
-the decision to wear the hijab makes a statement that places the mohajabeh in the full light of the
public gaze, something parents and kin groups do not necessarily wish to see.
-It is often adopted and worn as a badge of honour by the younger generation of ‘white’ and ‘non-white’
as an identiﬁer that delineates a clear difference.
-It is a symbolic construct that otherizes the mohajabeh and creates a communality that celebrates an
Islamic identity, and is not bounded by race, class or ethnicity.
-It creates a new category of believers who can, and often have, their roots or their aspirations in
-By doing so, they often ﬁt uncomfortably within Muslim kinship groups.
-Often women who deﬁne themselves as Muslim have a clear appreciation of both the rewards and the
duties and obligations that the faith imposes on believers in their everyday lives.
-The continuity is sustained by shared memories, stories and cultural practices; change is both a
reaction to circumstances and a process of negotiation, which results in a multiplicity of identities that
‘may or may not contradict each other’
-Women of all generations may think of themselves as migrants, as wives, as mothers, or as British