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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 Ideology and History.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

Lecture 4 Ideology and History The Left/Right Ideological Spectrum - 1649, the height of the English civil war, King Charles I was executed by beheading. - Thomas Hobbes would write in 1652 wrote the Leviathan, that book represents the dawning of modern thought and political theory. - Hobbes would be the first one to challenge Aristotle’s defense of slavery - He would also argue that humans are all equal - The state of nature exists before the creation of society. He says humans have insatiable appetites - Humans own our selves. - 1688 Glorious Revolution resolves all problems originated in the beginning of the century and England forms a constitutional monarchy. The Liberal Debate Classical versus Reformed Liberals Classical Liberalism - Personal Freedom for a classical liberal the highest value in society is free. It is freedom from coersive power. Not anarchists, not libertarians. Believe there is a limited role of government in society. Individuals should be free to choose their code of conduct. Governments should provide an army to protect the citizens from foreih invaisons, provide a police force to protect the citizens from each other and provide us with a system of courts, a body that will uphold the law and force us to live up to our contracts. - Embrace human equality of right. Citizens should be subject to and should have to abide by the same set of rules. There is a right to procedural fairness. - Consent of the Governed must be accountable to the Citizens. Citizenship is contingent upon being a state holder. They are the people who own property. Reformed Liberal - Consent of the Governed. They have a very broad view of who the governed are. - Personal Freedom to the reforemed liberals is freedom for the individual to realize their capabilities. - Equality of Right for a Reformed liberal are concerned with procedural fairness but also the outcomes of the procedures. They believe in equal opportunity. Conservative Revival - Neo Conservatism basically accepts Capitalism but maintains mostly classical liberal premises. - Strands of Socialism - Socialist ideology has its origins in the aftermath of the industrial revolution where there is an urban working class - Social Democrats bring about a more eyual society - Marxism believe that socialism cant come about through parliamentary
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