Lecture 4 Ideology and History
The Left/Right Ideological Spectrum
- 1649, the height of the English civil war, King Charles I was executed by
- Thomas Hobbes would write in 1652 wrote the Leviathan, that book
represents the dawning of modern thought and political theory.
- Hobbes would be the first one to challenge Aristotle’s defense of slavery
- He would also argue that humans are all equal
- The state of nature exists before the creation of society. He says humans have
- Humans own our selves.
- 1688 Glorious Revolution resolves all problems originated in the beginning
of the century and England forms a constitutional monarchy.
The Liberal Debate Classical versus Reformed Liberals
- Personal Freedom for a classical liberal the highest value in society is free. It
is freedom from coersive power. Not anarchists, not libertarians. Believe
there is a limited role of government in society. Individuals should be free to
choose their code of conduct. Governments should provide an army to
protect the citizens from foreih invaisons, provide a police force to protect
the citizens from each other and provide us with a system of courts, a body
that will uphold the law and force us to live up to our contracts.
- Embrace human equality of right. Citizens should be subject to and should
have to abide by the same set of rules. There is a right to procedural fairness.
- Consent of the Governed must be accountable to the Citizens. Citizenship is
contingent upon being a state holder. They are the people who own property.
- Consent of the Governed. They have a very broad view of who the governed
- Personal Freedom to the reforemed liberals is freedom for the individual to
realize their capabilities.
- Equality of Right for a Reformed liberal are concerned with procedural
fairness but also the outcomes of the procedures. They believe in equal
- Neo Conservatism basically accepts Capitalism but maintains mostly classical
Strands of Socialism
- Socialist ideology has its origins in the aftermath of the industrial revolution
where there is an urban working class - Social Democrats bring about a more eyual society
- Marxism believe that socialism cant come about through parliamentary