May 16 , 2013: Lecture 3
- By the 19 century, classical liberalism replaced classic conservatism ideology
- This was the rise of the welfare state
- Personal Freedom, Limited government, equality of rights, consent of the governed
- For classical liberals, freedom means the absence of cohersion. freedom from cohersion.
- Classical liberals (CL) place a huge emphasis on limited government. For CL, govts
should be limited to the roles of a night watchmen state. Govts should be there to protect
the citizens. The role of govts is to provide a defence against intruders. The role of govt is
to uphold the law and protect us from internal threats by enforcing a police force.
- Equality of rights for CL: all citizens are subject to and should abide by the same set of
rules.Any wealth status or power have always existed and will always exist. For CL, they
are concerned about procedures, not outcomes. CL like the rules to be same for everyone.
They do not place a high value on equity, but on fairness. For a CL, those with a stake in
the country should have a say in how it is governed. The stake can be defined as property.
CL are big on property rights.
- During 17 and 18 century, battle was between classical conservatism and classical
liberalism. As more people enter the political discourse, more ideologies rise such as
- Personal freedom for a reform Liberal (RL): definition of the people is enlarged. Greater
freedom in society will result in larger demand for equality. Freedom is more than
abscenece of cohersion. Freedom for RL becomes positive liberty. Freedom to develop to
your full potential. With that right comes access to the means necessary to achieve that
potential. Freedom to be all that you can be.
- Limited government: RL say govt can be used to tak6e away freedoms for some to
enhance freedom for others. The more you make, the greater share of that you have to
pay taxes. “The society helps you so you should be giving back to it”. For CL, everyone
should be taxed the same amount.
- Equality of right: for RL becomes equality of opportunity. Not just the rules should be
equal, but everyone should start the race in the same place. Sympathy for the concept of
equity. RL’s are interested in outcomes than procedures. In 1960 we h