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York University (35,470)
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SOSC 1130 (72)
Lecture

2011-09-29.Creating a Nation.doc

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Department
Social Science
Course
SOSC 1130
Professor
Alina Marquez
Semester
Winter

Description
2011-09-29 Creating a Nation: National Policies and Labour Migration, 1867-1914 The Creation of Canada • Three interrelated policies seen as important to creation of Canada o Protective tariffs o Western settlement o Transcontinental railways  All to recruit immigrants • Immigration was always an issue of national concern to Canada, always an issue of development of Canada Protective Tariffs • Create an important manufacturing base in Canada • Involved taxing imports in order to protect the local industry, which was still in its infancy • Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) • Producing commodities locally that it had previously imported • Tariffs supposed to be temporary to help industry take off Western Settlement • Highest priority to Canadian government • Founding fathers had vision of united country from east to west • Bring western provinces into confederation • This vision was threatened by the U.S. who had their eye on western Canada as they wished to expand • Canada wanted to populate west before U.S. got there • Dominion land act provided land to settlers, dispossess first nations Transcontinental Railways • Link Canada internally • Very few internal links • Establishment of the national sense of identity • Canada required transportation for communication. Important to settlement, economy, shipping goods, sense of identity Creating an Immigration Framework • First immigration act passed in 1869 • 1867-1892 Immigration under jurisdiction of Department of Agriculture • 1892-1917 Under Department of Interior • Open door policy to immigrants • Network of agencies abroad to attract and recruit immigrants to Canada • Target farmers with capital, workers, and domestics • Advertised to potential settlers 2011-09-29 • Settling the West seemed to be very difficult o World economic recession (1873 – 1876) o Price of grain fell, was not profitable o Price of shipping was high o Competition from the U.S.  Immigrants preferred U.S. because farming and transportation was better • Push factors externally • In Canada, end of 19 century, economic conditions improved • Improvements in technology suited to prairie farming • American frontier was drying up • Lead to interest to immigrate to Canada • Prime Minister Laurier predicted in 1904, that 20 century for Canada would be like 19 century to the U.S. • Key to national prosperity was to recruit agriculturalists to farm the West • Make Canada self sufficient, independent economically • Ideal immigrants were people who came from generations of farmers and had many kids – Sifton • Settle for Central and Eastern Europeans, not British • Introduced multicultural aspect to Canada • 1869 immigration act revised in 1906 and 1910 o Both revisions place restriction on Immigration o Started to tighten up o 1906 – Provided a definition of immigrant, excluded a number of people  Prostitutes and those who procure them  Mentally retarded  Diseased
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