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Intro to ID- April 2.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1430
Miguel Gonzalez

Intro to ID April 2, 2013 Engaged Citizens, Participatory Democracy and Development Film  Important message of hope in the film  Important video for the final exam  With few esources, they were able to build a city First Term, conclusions:  Development is a highly contested field- no consensus  Not much agreement among researchers, policy makers about: o What constitutes development o What the goals of development should be o The means to get to the goal  Problems and solutions are not agreed upon  Definitions and explanations  Development is about power relations o It reflects interests o Normative assumptions about human being  How we should interact with nature o How one country controls another  Groups in conflict, countries and regions with different strategic interests, relations of exploitations where resources are siphoned off, truncated opportunities for development  Always being history into what development is  E.g. globalization from above, globalization from below (transition to second term)  No agreement as to who should be the main forces driving development processes; 3 actors o State: many countries developed because their states carried out important policies, regulated policies, defined long term goals o Neoliberal policy: policy-makers, rather than states asserted to be primary force  Markets are the main factor of economic development  Little involvement of the state o Civil society: social movement: people emphasize importance about thinking about development from below  NGOs Second Term  Globalization from above excludes and marginalizes  Globalization from below: challenges and alternatives Ways to Consider Development  An unintentional process o E.g. broad processes of historical transformation o E.g. colonialism, development of capitalism, emergence of globalization  Happen on a broad scale, no single group or person planning them, not a conspiracy theory  An international intervention in the Third World  Agents intervene, typically on behalf of the poor  Legitimized as helping others o Overcome underdevelopment o Lifting up the poor and eliminating poverty o Empowering women  Involve particular development programs and interventions o CIDA programs and priorities o NGOs Development as Intervention  Produces knowledge about the Third World o Construct images of problems that need solving o Often promotes western power and control o The West defines the problems that need solving  Identifies TW problems  Identifies who are development experts in charge of interventions  “Army” of individual employed by NGO
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