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Lecture

SOSC 2350 Note 23.docx

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Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 2350
Professor
Dena Demos

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SOSC 2350 Note 23 Making Space for Mosques - This deals with mapping, history of Canada and the processes of racialization - This is a straightforward article that doesn’t deal with obvious theory, instead it talks about the contestation over space. - How the constitution of spaces: o Are organized to sustain unequal social relations  The homeless and padlocking of parks o Reproduce racial hierarchies - The constitution of space is not the space itself but its location and its physical attributes - Produces a particular kind of social imaginary o Space has always been used in a way to product hierarchies  Dangerous spaces and good neighbourhoods - Space has a temporal and historical relation – there is a premium to be paid to live close to the water. o It was not a coincidence that in 2005 the individuals who were most affected by Hurricane Katrina were those who lived near the water.  Money flows away from water in New Orleans – in Toronto it flows towards.  In terms who was most impacted – they tended to be primarily represented by the urban poor (black mothers) - You understand how spaces are allocated due to the historical aspects of spaces o Black people in Louisiana (history of slavery) - Understanding space as something that is used to sustain unequal social relations o For example, look at the Canadian history with the reservation system – using space to promote unequal social relations or to sustain them. - We can also say that spaces produces a social imaginary – this is (Doxa) o For example, a productive neighbourhood is one that has up and coming people moving in (Starbucks) - Gentrification is the dynamic that emerges when poor neighbourhoods experience a shift and the composition of the neighbourhood changes o For example, When a yuppie moves in causing average income to increase - When we talk about space and sketchy neighbourhoods, we do not talk about the space itself, but about the people that occupy that space o Sketchy space is really about sketchy people Mapping - Is an organization and symbolic reproduction of space and spatial relations o It structures and produces relations o It fundamentally is about boundaries and borders o It was a tool of the colonial enterprise - A type of spatial and domination/mastery - It is a way of knowing. - (Is this the same as Redlining)? - Mapping promotes hegemony and a way of knowing. Unmapping - Not only to denaturalize geography by asking how spaces come to be o It is also to undermine the idea of white settler innocence and to uncover the ideologies and practices of conquest and domination - It is to reveal the relationship between identity and space – in unmapping there is a crucial relationship between the two o It’s about contestation – certain claims that have been put forward and accepted as true statements.  You would content certain discourses. - Here you try to make people visible. o We try to include other groups into the story of the nation – into the story of Canada.  By doing so you are revealing certain things – revealing the racialized structure that is present (characterizes contemporary Canada) - To unmap is to problematize geography, and undermine assumptions writ onto that space by asking certain questions – how is it that spaces come to be? o How is it that that space comes to be imagined in a particular way that excludes particular groups?  Unmapping is particularly about revealing the idea of lack of innocence - Once you start disturbing the myths and discourse you make progress in uncovering all of the ideologies and practices of conquest and domination. National Myths: Who and what is Canada? - National myths as ideologies of citizenship - Myth of Canada as a white settler society: o 1. Conquest of an uninhabited land whereby the term uninhabited would consist of the production of aboriginal people as “not Christina, not civilized, not commercial, not evolved” (Razack – Race, Space, and the Law, 3)  This is the first phase of conquest between Europeans and Natives we see a relationship between law, race and space in a famous doctrine:  Here is the idea that gets codified in law: there is an obvious relationship between law, race, and space:  The legal doctrine terra nullius (empty lands)  In the case of British colonialism, they claimed that the land wasn’t inhabited – if they weren’t certain things (not Christian) [it all depends on who’s defining the things] then they did not count as occupiers of those lands.  Being visible and counted required certain things – you’re simply in the way  These ideas and understanding of space becomes codified in law. o 2. The empty land developed by hardy and enterprising European settlers  People of colour are scripted as late arrivals after development has occurred  A national amnesia or disavowal of slavery, identureship and labour exploitation  Example: Chinese who built the national railway and the Sikhs who worked in the 19 century lumber industry  When we talk about unmapping it also includes certain narratives – in the national story, all of these bodies of colour has significant role in nation building who have been ignored. o 3. Modern Canada now besieged and crowded by “third world” refuges and immigrants  The authors of this article are trying to show what is being imagined or projected onto the specific bodies or spaces, with mosques as a specific example. o This invites certain questions, particularly as we’re reading about the
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