Violence existed for a long time since the roman empire & greeks. Ancient greek olympics: had boxing, wrestling, pankration -> no rules, could do anything. Choking to death allowed: gladiator films depict fighting and violence. 1859 canada"s national game, 1860s most popular game in the montreal. 1994 -> hockey named national winter sport. Early hockey first hockey game in 1875 by english rugby players looking for winter sport similar violence in rugby fighting originally not allowed in hockey. Football is the most popular sport in america. Nfl and nhl use violence to promote sport. Nhl only sport not to eject players for fighting. Popular in 20th century: mma now popular. Social learning theory: argues violence is not natural/instinctual, it is learned behavior, learned behavior through culturalization process, teaches acceptable and unacceptable behavior, sport plays big role in socializing children and how to relate to violence fighting in hockey. Punching someone is acceptable to dealing with issues/frustrations.