SOSC 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Consumerism, Emerging Markets, John Maynard Keynes

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21 Jul 2016
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Sosc 1000 Test 1
Part A: 5 out of 6 will be on exam: Define them and explain significance for the course
Holmberg’s mistake:
Lived with Siriono (natives) in Bolivia and thought that the Siriono people were primitive
humans susceptible to diseases
Thought they were unmarked by history and did not have knowledge of land, history or of the
Siriono people
He applied biases and created false views about them
Significance is that this relates to mythistory because he did not consider all the facts like how
Columbus who discovered America and treated aboriginals with disrespect and violence. Relates
to dominant ideology too because the dominant ideology tends to be the accepted one but is
not entirely right because it was created with biases or single perspectives
Thomas Hobbes:
Explored the nature of human condition and established the fact that human behaviour can be
studied
Hobbes believed that humans originally acted in a state of nature – humans fueled by the drive
to accumulate were in constant competition with each other and only lived reasonably when
subjecting themselves to a common power
Personal sovereignty: ability to sell our own labor and we aren’t a pawn of the ruling classes or
the government
Social contract: theory of social behaviour being rational and how it causes humans to form
societies (who would rule/ govern the people)
Rise to classical ideology where we have the power in our persons and we have property to
ourselves – this led to classical liberalism
Classical liberalism: the belief of the absence of cohesion (forming of united whole) and the
individual being free to do as they please –the government is seen as the primary threat to the
rights of individuals
Significance: individuals should not be restricted, they can buy/ sell land, access the resources
they want and this relates to full time employment which involves selling one’s capacity for
work
Mythistory:
McNeil believed that scientific method couldn’t be applied to history because it fails to show the
broader perspective in history or mythology
History: scientific thought and facts
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Myth: comprehensive explanations –not scientific/ historic
Mythistory is a blend of the two to explain how something came to be
Both aim to explain the past, and both are necessary to explain each other
Significance: need both to understand the full story and it is exemplified by Columbus and his
treatment towards the native Americans and the stories that goes along with it
Reform Liberalism:
Liberalism: individual and self are important, and the education of everyone is necessary for
everyone to reach their full potential
4 Characteristics of Reform Liberalism:
oPersonal Freedom: access to means to reach full potential and government should
help and provide that right to every citizen while being active not passive when
allowing freedom
oLimited government: power of government can be used to reduce freedom and it
can also enhance it –more earnings = more tax for social services and redistribution
of wealth from the rich
oEquality of Right/ Opportunity: equal opportunity and rights for all –grants and loans
for education –Classical liberals don’t want tax but promote equality, not procedural
fairness
oConsent of the Governed: citizens are governed but can limit government control by
not interfering
Significance: gives every individual in society the equal opportunity to access resources that
are found within society itself –focuses on the center of society around the individual which
relates to individualism and modern society
Just in time workforce:
Concept of manufacturing that reduces a the manufacturers costs and increases efficiency by
improving the flow of supply and goods reducing the amount of in process inventory that is
purchased and stored and it also aligns production and labor needs based on customer demand,
making less regulations on employee rights and ways to bypass them –part time
The work is flexible, temporary and is designed and purchased to reduce business costs and
increase efficiency
Capital becomes mobile and work follows capital
Numerical work arrangements are used more through part time and contract work making
workers miss out on benefits that full time workers get like vacation, health plans, less pay, etc.
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Significance: Relates to Westray (bypassing of regulations regarding health and safety of
workers through threats of losing job and management ignorance) and how this type of work
creates impoverished situations because of low job stability and the bypassing of regulations
and full time benefits
Honor:
Definition: How society is organized in terms of gender roles and division of labor
Cambell reading: honor in corporate family
oWomen cannot be seen outside of house and work on their dowry, they are shameful
and it is easy to lose honor
oHonor shows strength of family and their moral solidarity
oMen (manliness) and women (sexual shame) must keep honor
oAnimal theft- stealing food is honorable and luxurious for family, while family that
allows theft is dishonored because they couldn’t protect the food
oAvenging rapist or murder takes back honor
oHonor is symbol of prestige and is inherited
Significance: in traditional society, honor is family’s level of prestige and it is kept by following a
set of rules and standards for each gender- in a set society and is a form of social organization in
society itself
Legitimation Function:
Definition: an act, process or ideology becomes legitimate by its attachment to norms and
values within society
State incorporates working class into a system which is done through the use of unions in order
to keep them happy
Used to stabilize and protect the system of capitalism through welfare which incorporates the
working class into the system
Keynesian welfare state and the left and right wing ideologies:
oLeft wing: opposing the monarch, government intervention is a good thing through
regulation of the economy through the use of taxes
oRight wing: for the monarch, government is not the solution but the problem to
individual liberty, public ownership to advance costs of society, free from government,
little tax and fair tax when needed (flat taxes)
Keynesian welfare state was under attack by left and right wings but left used legitimation
function against the Keynesian welfare state
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