SOSC 1130 Lecture Notes - Social Relation, Devaluation, Public Sphere

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Published on 2 Feb 2013
Gender and International Migration
Awareness that international policies disadvantage women
Explanations of women’s experiences differ
Some explanations have been embraced by policy makers, while some are ignored
Gender: Social or Biological?
Gender – a social construction
Appears natural, rather than something that is socially constructed over time
Common sense
Distinction between Sex and Gender
Biological characteristics
Male or female
Some ambiguous sexual characteristics (intersex)
Society does not deal with ambiguity
Society makes them into male or female
Appears natural, but is not
Meanings that we attach to the characteristics, social relations
Gender roles masculine or feminine (social)
Organizing principle in society
Shapes individuals
Creates inability to cross borders
Society links gender to biological characteristics
Gender roles change over time and from place to place
Ordering of roles, as well as ranking of roles (power)
Gender as a social relation of inequality
The Historical Construction of Gender Roles in the West and the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution transformed social relations around production and
Pre industrial society characterized by a non-wage economy, and unity of work
and home
With industrialization production and reproduction became organized in a new
Characteristics of industrial society
oDomination of wage labour
Household was no longer a self-sufficient means of economy
Members of family had to survive by working for wages
oSplit between home and work
Household no longer place of work, lost productive role
Began to fulfill only a reproductive role (reproduction of new
generations, daily reproduction of family members)
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