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Lecture 13

SOSC 1350 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Sexual Assault, Transphobia, Patrilineality

Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1350
Reese Simpkins

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SOSC 1350
PEOPLES 01/06/2016
Indigenous People in Canada:
Diversity includes Inuit, Metis, and First Nations (Both “status” and “non-
Condition of reserves
oUrban migration is not surprising because of poverty
H1N1, Indigenous people were more likely to be contracted with this than
the rest of Canada
High rates of suicide and self-inflected harm
oMain cause of death for several Indigenous people
Legacy and continued effect of colonialism
Focus for today
1. A key part of colonialism is the enforcement of Western
sex/gender and sexuality norms on indigenous populations and,
2. Colonialist ideas are enshrined in Canadian law
Normalizing Power (Mona Gleason):
Normalization is the process through which something becomes normal or
Normalizing power works by:
oComparing, differentiating, hierarchicalizing, homogenizing and
oExample: Race – Flesh coloured band aids
Colonialism and The Rise of Modernity:
Time period between the 15th century (1400s) to the start of the
Industrial Revolution in the later 18th century
Rationality Science and technology
“Terra Nullius” – Empty land, land not owned by anyone
oResults in the land then becoming colonialized if there is no habitat
Technical and cultural sophistication = Human superiority
Indigenous people = “Primitives” or “Savages”

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Scientific Racism:
Different types of human have different capabilities
oExample: Own slaves because they are seen as inferior
Non-European races = not quite human
oRampant sexuality
Travelling exhibitions
Cultural difference is visually inscribed
Non-white cultures need discipline, civilization and salvation
Cultural inferiority is linked to physiology
Non-whites lack rationality, are more animal than human, have
animalistic sexual appetites
Inferiority is scientifically proven
Colonialism In Canada and The Americas:
Colonialism = Contemporary reality
Sex/gender and sexuality = primary mechanisms of colonialism
oSexual assault, sexism, homophobia and transphobia are entangled
with the history of colonialism
Sex/Gender and Sexuality As Mechanisms of Colonialism:
Prior to colonization
Colonial assumption = heterogendered norms indicative of superiority
o“Berdache” (= Offensive term)
Two aspects of colonization:
o1. Tangible aspects – Land theft, forced movement
o2. Intangible aspects – imposition of certain ideas
But these tangibly enforced through physical brutality
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