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SOSC 1375 Lecture Notes - Canadian Citizenship Act 1946, Canadian Pacific Railway, Anti-Communism

Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1375
Olena Kobzar

of 5
Governing Trouble and the Making of a Good Citizen
Treaty of Westphalia:
Birth of the Modern Nation State
Key Principles:
1. Political self determination
2. Equality between sovereign states
3. Principle of non intervention
„Imagined Communities‟: states were assumed to correspond to nations groups of people
united by language and culture
History of Citizenship in Canada:
Few immigrants before 1896: in face a lot of people emigrates to US in search of labour (US
restricted this immigration in 1920s
Canadian Pacific Railroad 1885
3 Models of Integration:
1. Anglo French Conformity: anyone to come had to be French (catholic) or English (protestant)
(prior to 1945)
2. The Melting Pot
3. Pluralism/Multiculturalism (post 1 945)
Canadian Immigration Policy Before 1945:
Open doors: the more immigrants the better
„Only Farmers Need Apply‟- farming the Prairies and the West
Assimilation: White Anglo- Saxon Protestants (WASP)
Canadian Immigration Act of 1910:gave the Canadian government the power to prohibit the
entry of “immigrants belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of
„Non-Preferred‟ and „Not Acceptable‟: visible minorities- laws and regulations were issued to
prevent their coming to Canada
- No Social Safety Net:
- Deportations: immigrants who lost their jobs
1930-1934: 16765 immigrants were deported from Canada for having become public charge
by 1935 the number of deportations had reached more than 28,000
Economic conditions influenced the immigration policy
Changes to Immigration Policy Post 1945:
Highly skilled and educated immigrants are needed for national growth
Increased national prosperity no competition for scarce jobs
Increased levels of education(=tolerance) and travel (=curiosity)
Reactions to horrors of WWII and concentration camps
Fears of communism- asylum given to anti communist
Increased living standards in Europe less immigrants coming to Canada
Humanitarian concerns: 1) family reunification and 2) refugee policy was progressively
Canadian Citizenship Acts:
1st Canadian Citizenship Act (Jan.1st, 1947): until 1947 all Canadians were British subjects
living in Canada
2nd Canadian Citizenship Act (1977): citizenship is reconstituted as a right not a privilege
3rd Canadian Citizenship Act (2002): revised loyalty oath to Canada and its democratic
Consumer Citizenship:
Citizenship is connected to national economic growth
Examinations of laws and regulations governing who belongs and who doesn‟t belong cannot
be separated from the analysis of the economy/capitalism
Ditto dangerous/criminal and productive citizen
Dealing with Danger:
Danger/Legitimation Crisis:
- Legitimization of practices-murals, skating parks, back alleys, bars and etc.
Surveillance as a form of control:
What/Who is Dangerous?
- related people (husband wife, bf gf)
-prison, completely circle with a watch tower, around the perimeter are cells facing the tower
They “eye” everyone‟s watching
-punish the soul and not the body
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
The „gaze‟:
-In addition to God, we have fear that someone is watching us and disciplines our actions
Surveillance society:
- The law and state/police watches you instead of God sees all your actions
- We become productive citizens because we have fear