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Lecture 8

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Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1910
Professor
Dorathy Moore
Lecture
8

Page:
of 4
AP SOSC 1210 (tutorial + lecture) Wednesday,
January 27th, 2010
Tutorial:
Not handing in research
Population in course
Canadian minority (perspectives)
Canadian material
Human rights framework & applicable concepts from course (within thesis)
1st see course syllabus
3 scholarly articles, make sure interconnected
MLA or APA, include page #
Last Lecture:
Opportunities racialized minorities paid less than whites
Differential access to jobs & wages, have roots in 19th century, Blacks & Chinese
Once it becomes systemic, difficult to reverse
Over years, systemic discrimination perpetuated result
Gap most evident among university educated at 14.6% & those without 20% differential
rate
oMajority with education make most
oMinority with education make less
oThese are access to job issues
Addressing Racism: Canadian Challenges
1) How has law dealt with racism?
Cases: Wing, Clun, Phillips, Christie, Desmond, Narine, Singh, Parks, Williams,
R.D.S, Brown & Ahmed
2) “Official” strategy for change multiculturalism & pluralism
3) Education
1) How has law dealt with racism?
Canada relies on presumptions, between Canada & US are raceless but most apparent in
cases
Wing:
Challenge to labor law, was discriminatory but constitutional as long as within provincial
jurisdiction
Lost case, 1914-1924 Saskatchewan removed racist language, “Japanese & other
Orientals”
Act was no longer racialized
Expected discrimination to continue in practice even though language removed
Clun:
10 years later, Regina, got license to employ white women
“Chinese Exclusion Act” not enough Chinese
Brought application & city counsel refused but won @ court, offended Saskatchewan
legislature
Changed legislation so license, Court ordered given to Clun revoked, start taxing harder
Phillips:
Example how courts deracialize a case
Mob of men, women taken to her mother than salvation army
KKK abducted a women in house with man of color, threatened man
Police focused on abduction of white women & not Mr. Johnson & burning of cross on his
house, ignored the fact of KKK didn’t deal with racist facts
Narrowing case, deracialize, getting rid of facts
Christie:
Chauffeur denied service in taverns of Montreal forum & sued for damages & won in lower
court
Overturned by Court of King’s bench, Supreme Court upheld their decision in segregation
Court endorsed segregation
Viola Desmond:
Escorted out of theatre, held in custody for sitting in white section in Nova Scotia
Seat prices were 1 cent difference
Charged her for tax invasion, avoid segregation issue & dealt with it as tax matter
Singh:
Okay to deport on basis of skin colour claims Canada
Parks:
80’s refusal to see racism in court & legislature
1002, Black man accused of murdering white person
Parks argued he should have right to “challenge for cause” question the jurors racial bias
& he won
Court start to think about racism
Williams:
Aboriginal accused of robbing white, 1997 “challenge of cause”
R.D.S:
Aka Sparks case, Black judge identified racial profiling before ever talked about in Canada
White police officer overreacted two black youths & dismissed charges
Supreme Court because Crown asserted bias on part of Black judge in Nova Scotia
Said Sparks contextualized case, White males argued
Brown:
Dec 2004, pulled over for speeding, convicted & he appealed because “DWB” & won
White judge said racial profiling does happen
Ahmed:
Charged with possession in Toronto, charges dismissed because judge said police lied
about reason to pull him over & racially detained Ahmed
A gradual attempt to recognize race is factor in case & needs to be dealt with as part of
facts within case
Need to understand laws roles, racialized hierarchy, law is not neutral gendered &
racialized
“reasonable man” British law, white man
Responding to a racial slur, don’t understand how hurtful
Notwithstanding, white man still dominate
Law is power to rewrite history, develop legislation of socio-economic to dominant
Challenging racism through law difficult
Racialized minority try to mobilize political strategy to charge things
Diversity of the bench judges called to bar lawyers need diversity in law schools
universities = long term commitment
First Challenge
Competitive racism jobs & pay
Belief dominant group entitled as long as they want them
Jobs in labor market disappear, newcomers accused of taking jobs
Forms of exclusion, they aren’t really Canadian, doesn’t matter how long they’ve been here
Second Challenge
Polite but its potent, strong
Denial of white privilege
Kind of innocence, neutral, normative, ideal, live in a system that promotes merit, we
believe we get what we deserve Democratic system, believe have a choice to succeed,
equally available to all
If you don’t succeed its your fault because system is neutral
We don’t work to change system but perpetuate it, try to make others look more like us
Cant change skin color so response is silent, make subject of racism taboo racialized
hierarchy
Canadians want to convey image of “racial tolerance”
2) “Official” strategy for change multiculturalism & pluralism
Policy of multiculturalism introduced to support claims for cultural retention
Maintain ethno-cultures in human rights terms
Support cultural rights within existing political order
Racialized minority achievement in public sphere problematic
Institutional or equity multiculturalism
Targeted race relations institutional accommodation of racialized minority
Moved from celebrating differences to race relations
Systemic discrimination federal gov’t & multicultural policy
Program: access to jobs, employment equity try to deal with systemic discrimination
Strategy for change racialized minority, women, Aboriginal, disabled
Categorical & nothing to do with culture
S. 15 of Charter not what racialized minority anticipated
Employment equity passed by federal gov’t employees & contractor
Only covered 10% of Canadian workforce, federal gov’t doesn’t have legislation to rule over
provincial
“in & up” strategy, most provinces didn’t follow, Ontario did have an act, restore “quality &
employment”
Biggest gap between Canadian born whites & non-Canadian born racialized minorities
Promotions not changed, not an “up” strategy only an “in”
In 1990’s gov’t switched to civic multiculturalism designed to promote citizenship gov’t
switched to integrative multiculturalism
Ethnicity
multiculturalism
Equity
multiculturalism
Civic multiculturalism Integrative
multiculturalism
Focus Celebrating difference Managing diversity Constructive
engagement
Mandate Support ethnicity Race relations Citizenship
Problem Exclusion of 3rd
element
Systemic
discrimination
Exclusion
Key metaphor Mosaic/3rd element Level playing field
What is pluralism, really?
An approach to the arrangement of all diversity
Involves respect for diversity & active & constructive engagement with shared Canadian
identity within framework of common values: freedom, equality, tolerance, democracy, HR,
rule of law
Pluralism is about ensuring all voices heard in national conversation about Canadian
society & our collective future
3) Education
Consciousness revising help group identify sources of discontent & inequality
Competition between groups, who is most agreed group
Intergroupragmentation, fighting white racism, fight group by group, difficult
Strategies: late 70’s early 80’s Irvin Alliance on race relations