A V I A N A N A T O M Y
There are 9702. All maybe different anatomically and physiologically, But this basic knowledge
should help.must know to extrapolate the doses according to species.
•Endotherm-can generate internal heat
•Flight-have Anatomical modifications such as:
a)Skeletal modifications- pneumatic bones. Hollow bones and filled with air spaces that connect to
the respiratory system.make It lighter
b)Muscular- modified for flying. 40-50% of body mass if flight muscle.
Biggest muscle in the centre is flight muscle and the rest are just around that central muscle.
c)Respiratory have air sacs and are most efficient for respiration
d)Dermal- have feathers
•Beak: no teeth. To make the animal lighter. They have gizzard in abdominal cavity that have the
same function as teeth.
Some birds cannot fly
•Flightless birds are called Ratites
No keel on the sternum for muscle attachment.
•examples of birds that cannot fly are Kiwi, emu, ostrich
•Penguins: Are not ratites they are spheniciformes exam question!!!!
Has undergone Adaptive Modifications for flight.
a)Rigidity: by Fusion and has a greater content of Ca and P. bones are stronger but more brittle
b)Reduction in body weight by having:
- Pneumatised bones. The air spaces reduces body weight.
- Pneumatised bones are skull, humerus and ulna and sternum
c)Redistribution of muscle mass: stronger muscle for flight..
- body mass is close to centre of gravity
- with infection in the lungs, it can be seen as swelling in the head. As the infection can spread
through the holes in the bones. Skull (duck)
Rostrum Orbit Brain Case
c) bony external naris
d) nasal bone
e) frontal bone
f) lacrimal bone
h) occipital bone
i) ethmoid bone
j) jugal arch
k) vomer bone
l) palatine bone
m) pterygoid bone
n) quadrate bone
Cranial kinesis Vertebral Column
-jaw joint articulation between the quadrate and
-More movement compared to mammals.
Large orbit-as sight is an important sensory mechanism for birds to catch prey.
- Flexible-Neck is most flexible part. Eyes are immobile so need various head movements and
- Synovial Joints- joints between the vertebrae are synovial joints. More flexible joints, thus
able to access hard to reach places such as the back and tail.
- Articular surfaces- saddle shaped
- Occipital condyle- only one occipital condyle.
Thus the atlanto-occipital joint only has one movement arounf a central axis(360 degrees movement.
So it can do a lot more task compared to a forearm of a mammal. Thus the , forearm of the bird is
mainly for lying only.
Pg 90 of lab guide (EXAM TABLE)!! Axial skeletal structure. Involved vertebrae Associated organ
Notarium T1-T4(T5 is free to move) Kinky back. Back muscles
Important for highly producing
broilers. Because the breast
muscles become too big for the
back to support, so the back
become kinky.The fusion is
because the musculature is too
much for the back bones to
Synsacrum Last2-3 thoracic(T), lumbar(L) Cant afford huge musculature
and sacral(sa) and caudal to be able to avoid bones
(Ca)vertebrae. breaking during landing.
Also fused to pelvis.
Pygostyle last 4-6 caudal vertebrae fusion To steer themselves in the
air.(steering wheel for birds)
Ulna : has bumps in the ulna for the attachment of secondary
The primary feathers attach to digit
secondary feathers attach to ulna.
coracoid: hold wings away during flight, along with ribs prevent
collapsing of thorax, to avoid the wings from collapsing on the
Furculum: wish bone: act as a strut to brace the wings apart.
Doesn’t allow the wings to cross over. Without it the wings will
get tangled to each other under the bird.
Sternum: is keeled. Provides a greater surface area for
attachment of flight muscles.
Uncinate process: gives strength to rib cage. For muscle and ligaments attachment.
Have two parts
a) vertebral part
b) b) sternal part
c) birds have no diaphragm.
d) Inhale: by expansion of lungs provided by that joint to move thoracic cavity cranial and
caudal. A lot of stress applied on it can fracture the joint.
name Origin insertion function
pectoralis Keel of sternum Pectoral crest ventrally Downbeat of wing
supracoracoid Keel of sternum Tendon of insertion Upbeat of wing
passes dorsally through the triosseal