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A V I A N A N A T O M Y.docx

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Massey University
227 .205
Peter Davie

A V I A N A N A T O M Y Classification •Class: Aves There are 9702. All maybe different anatomically and physiologically, But this basic knowledge should help.must know to extrapolate the doses according to species. AVES Characteristics •Endotherm-can generate internal heat •Flight-have Anatomical modifications such as: a)Skeletal modifications- pneumatic bones. Hollow bones and filled with air spaces that connect to the respiratory system.make It lighter b)Muscular- modified for flying. 40-50% of body mass if flight muscle. Biggest muscle in the centre is flight muscle and the rest are just around that central muscle. c)Respiratory have air sacs and are most efficient for respiration d)Dermal- have feathers •Beak: no teeth. To make the animal lighter. They have gizzard in abdominal cavity that have the same function as teeth. Some birds cannot fly •Flightless birds are called Ratites Ratis=Raft. No keel on the sternum for muscle attachment. •examples of birds that cannot fly are Kiwi, emu, ostrich •Penguins: Are not ratites they are spheniciformes exam question!!!! Skeletal System Has undergone Adaptive Modifications for flight. a)Rigidity: by Fusion and has a greater content of Ca and P. bones are stronger but more brittle b)Reduction in body weight by having: - Pneumatised bones. The air spaces reduces body weight. - Pneumatised bones are skull, humerus and ulna and sternum c)Redistribution of muscle mass: stronger muscle for flight.. - body mass is close to centre of gravity - with infection in the lungs, it can be seen as swelling in the head. As the infection can spread through the holes in the bones. Skull (duck) Rostrum Orbit Brain Case a) Premaxilla b)maxilla c) bony external naris d) nasal bone e) frontal bone f) lacrimal bone g) parietal h) occipital bone i) ethmoid bone j) jugal arch k) vomer bone l) palatine bone m) pterygoid bone n) quadrate bone o) mandible Cranial kinesis Vertebral Column -jaw joint articulation between the quadrate and articular bones. -More movement compared to mammals. Large orbit-as sight is an important sensory mechanism for birds to catch prey. Vertebral Column(neck) - Flexible-Neck is most flexible part. Eyes are immobile so need various head movements and flexibility. - Synovial Joints- joints between the vertebrae are synovial joints. More flexible joints, thus able to access hard to reach places such as the back and tail. - Articular surfaces- saddle shaped - Occipital condyle- only one occipital condyle. Thus the atlanto-occipital joint only has one movement arounf a central axis(360 degrees movement. So it can do a lot more task compared to a forearm of a mammal. Thus the , forearm of the bird is mainly for lying only. Pg 90 of lab guide (EXAM TABLE)!! Axial skeletal structure. Involved vertebrae Associated organ Notarium T1-T4(T5 is free to move) Kinky back. Back muscles Important for highly producing broilers. Because the breast muscles become too big for the back to support, so the back become kinky.The fusion is because the musculature is too much for the back bones to stabilise Synsacrum Last2-3 thoracic(T), lumbar(L) Cant afford huge musculature and sacral(sa) and caudal to be able to avoid bones (Ca)vertebrae. breaking during landing. Also fused to pelvis. Pygostyle last 4-6 caudal vertebrae fusion To steer themselves in the air.(steering wheel for birds) Flight bones Ulna : has bumps in the ulna for the attachment of secondary flight feathers. The primary feathers attach to digit secondary feathers attach to ulna. coracoid: hold wings away during flight, along with ribs prevent collapsing of thorax, to avoid the wings from collapsing on the thorax. Furculum: wish bone: act as a strut to brace the wings apart. Doesn’t allow the wings to cross over. Without it the wings will get tangled to each other under the bird. Sternum: is keeled. Provides a greater surface area for attachment of flight muscles. Uncinate process: gives strength to rib cage. For muscle and ligaments attachment. Ribs: Have two parts a) vertebral part b) b) sternal part c) birds have no diaphragm. d) Inhale: by expansion of lungs provided by that joint to move thoracic cavity cranial and caudal. A lot of stress applied on it can fracture the joint. Flight muscles. name Origin insertion function pectoralis Keel of sternum Pectoral crest ventrally Downbeat of wing supracoracoid Keel of sternum Tendon of insertion Upbeat of wing passes dorsally through the triosseal canal
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