PSYC 342 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Explicit Memory, Colored Pencil, Elizabeth Loftus

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20 Oct 2016
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Piaget’s theo of shees
Psychological structures
- Organized ways of making sense of experience
Change with age
- Action-based sensorimotor patterns
- Late oe to thikig efoe atig patte creative and deliberate
Psychologists use CBT
- Used with drugs (psychiatry) it can be really effective
- The way we think affects our biology
o Psychology affects physiology and vice versa
- Psychological problems will not get better unless you address and adjust the faulty cognitive
thinking
o The biology and thoughts clearly interact with each other
- Subject yourself to large amounts of stress/depression and you already have an underlying
predisposition to it you have a higher chance of developing cancer
- Can measure physiologically
o Sweat
o Pupils dilate
o HR increases
In conjunction with self-report
Since other things/emotions can elicit these too
Schema
- Mental script
- Learned from infancy how the world works
o What’s epeted of ou, ho ou should do thigs
- Template
- Most oious shea do’t hae to thik aout it
o Language
Do’t hae to thik aout ut lea it e eal o
Psychological structures
- First person to postulate/propose schemas
o Jean Piaget
Language comes quickly but there are others that we learn first
He poposed iula ehaious
o Things done over and over again and become ingrained
o First circular behaviour = sucking
Walking
Talking
Schemas built on it, become more complex
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There are critical behaviours for these schemas
Do’t lea speeh  ~age  ou ot
o Noam Chomsky
Speech is built in you just have to program it
Certain sophisticated behaviours do have to be programmed
o Once programmed it is difficult to change them
o Schema strongly built in
If ou’e leaed the shea ioetl it’s diffiult
to change it
Not a matter of a pill or talking to someone
for an hour
Because at the root of those schemas are
automatic thoughts and core beliefs
o Learned from infancy, childhood
o This is who you are, how you think
If you learned from
childhood you deserve to
e eat, it’s hard to change
that, and it will be built
upon
I’ othless, I do’t
desee to lie
Become more complex
(built upon) and difficult to
change
o Piaget
Called them action based sensorimotor patterns
Sucking is adaptive, need it to stay alive (feeding)
Adaptation east is’t thee, ifat otiues to suk
o Becomes more complex
Infant puts other things in their mouth to
experiment
Adaptation and assimilation
Building schemes
Adaptation
- Building schemes through direct interaction with environment
o In order to survive and thrive, you learn new ways to interact with environment
Ex. Take bus instead of subway
If you a’t adapt, may be an indication of psychological disorder
o Inability to adapt to environment
May be due to genetics, physiology, brain damage
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Used to be called mental retardation, now called
developmental instability
May be able to learn a limited number of
schemas
If environment changes you are in trouble
o Usig a diffeet shea ou ae’t used to usig
o Build schemes with direct interaction with environment
Assimilation
- Using current schemes to interpret external world
o Ex. Invited to birthday party, expect cake, know to bring a present
Accommodation
- Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment
o Quite easy in childhood, not so easy in adulthood
Piaget = child developmental psychologist
o Toddle leas dog ad alls a o a ig dog
Taught it is a cow
Slowly the toddler accommodates and learns it is a different animal
Adjusts quite quickly and easily in childhood, much harder in
adulthood
Using assimilation and accommodation
Equilibrium and disequilibrium
- Whe the old shea does’t fit the e oe = diseuiliiu
o New concept comes along and you need a new word for it, need to understand
what that word means
o Disequilibrium = need to use accommodation
- Euiliiu = assiilatio, ou use old shea to ko hat’s goig o, eoes uite
automatic
- Use assimilation during equilibrium
- Disequilibrium prompts accommodation
Organization
- Internal rearranging and linking schemes
o Constantly rearranging and linking schemas
o Not just the ones that are used in societal functioning (pathological)
Ex. Halloween party but no costumes allowed
Piaget
- First person to propose what a schema looks like (what it might be) and how it develops
o Develops from the most basic behaviours
o Built on when there is disequilibrium (need to learn something new)
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