HIST 1020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Charles Alexandre De Calonne, Sans-Culottes, Bourgeoisie

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French Revolution
1/17/16
I. Society under Ancien Regime
a. Absolutist monarchy (king/queen)
i. No civil rights
ii. No individual protection
b. First estate (clergy)
i. 1.5% of population
ii. Oversee all spiritual welfare in kingdom
iii. Special treatment (no taxes)
c. Second estate (nobility)
i. Physical protectors of France
ii. Exempt from direct taxes taxes pay in blood
iii. Dominate/control government officials
iv. Control government at local level
v. 2-3% of population (could overlap with other estates
d. Third estate
i. 95% of population
ii. No special privileges
iii. Make economy work (merchants, lawyers, doctors)
e. Bourgeoisie
i. Best educated in the country
ii. No special privileges like clergy
f. Sans-Culottes
i. Urban workers for Bourgeoisie
ii. Working class
iii. Unemployment = uneven
iv. Pays less to no tax
g. Rural peasantry
i. 85% of population
ii. Bear tax burden
iii. Poor
iv. Pay half of what they make in France
II. Financial Crisis
a. The debt
i. King Louis XVI supported Americans vs. British
ii. Paid for foreign wars
iii. Calonne told Louis to raise taxes
1. Property tax on first/second estate
2. must be cleared by estates general
b. the Assembly of Notables (1787)
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