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Genomes of Viruses and Mobile Genetic Elements.docx

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BIOL 3150

Genomes of Viruses and Mobile Genetic Elements (Chapter 9) • Because of parasitic nature size of virus genomes are usually very small and compact, some can be large though • Smallest known virus genome encodes for two genes • Largest known virus = pandoravirus, only 7% of genes have known homologs • Virus genomes can be linear or circular, single or double stranded DNAor RNA • Most early studies base don bacteriophages • Bacteriophage genomes are protected by three types of capsid proteins o Icosahedral (HIV), Filamentous (TMV), Head and Tail (T2) • First genome sequenced by Fred Sanger, φX174 • Early molecular genetics studies used T4 bacteriophage as a model for studying virus cycle • Latent period after infection in which temporary plateau of number of cells being infected • Lytic Infection o T4 attaches to bacterium on receptor protein o Phage DNAis injected into cell o Transcription of phage DNAbegins o Replication of phage DNA o Capsid protein synthesis o Host cell bursts, new phages released  Latent period corresponds to time it takes phage to active genome inside host cell and make more phage copies • Lysogenic Cycle (lamba phage) o Phage integrates genome into host chromosome and lays dormant inside host (prophage) (site specific recombination) o As host cell divides genome of dormant prophage copied and passed along to offspring o Host cell encountering stress could trigger excision of prophage from host genome o Enters LYTIC CYCLE • Structure of eukaryotic retrovirus: o Spikes: viral proteins that interact with host surface proteins o Membrane: lipid membranes usually acquired from host o RNAgenome an
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