APSY 2240 Lecture 5: February14_APSY324402_Whitcavitch-Devoy

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Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2240
Julia Whitcavitch- Devoy

Readings for today: Blustein, D. (2011). A relational theory of working - Work is an inherently relational act, and this is hard to precisely describe, as this relation is ever changing with time. - Social relationship and work life are affected by one another - Buffer for stress or conflict in the workplace - Can contribute to a better attitude about work - Affects family relationships at home - Good for cognitive, emotional, and physical development - Verbal connection and intellectual conversation - Less sedentary - Work satisfaction increases with age - Although there is some periods of boredom, there is satisfaction that comes with mastery - Difference between career and working - More room to grow in careers, as career suggests you made a choice and are expressing your self concept through your work role - Working is typically considering the energy that you give to a task to support yourself and your family in a given culture; work takes place in the workplace, in the home/family, community/church, and a variety of other systems - Culture affects the value one places on work - Individualistic or collaborative community focus - Value placed on certain careers and jobs varies across cultures - What one is willing to accept as work (eg. Not wanting to work at a fast food restaurant) Nahum-Shani, I. (2011). Work hours, retirement, and supportive relations among older adults - Findings indicate that for older workers yet to retire, work hours are associated with increased subsequent access to support from coworkers, yet with reduced subsequent access to support from close family members and non-work friends. However, for those who do retire, the number of hours worked prior to retirement is associated with reduced subsequent access to support from both close family members and coworkers, while having no effect on their access to support from close non-work friends. Liu, H., & Umberson, D. (2008). The times they are a changin’: Marital status and health differentials from 1972 to 2003 - Self-rated health ofthe never-married has improved over the past three decades. Moreover, the gap between the married and the never married has steadily converged over time for men but not for women. In contrast, the self-rated health of the widowed, divorced, and separated worsened over time relative to the married, and the adverse effects of marital dissolution have increased more for women than for men. Our findings highlight the importance of social change in shaping the impact of marital status on self-reported health and challenge long-held assumptions about gender, marital status, and health. McGee, E., & Shevlin, M. (2009). Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection - Both males and females described potential partners as more attractive when they had a good sense of humor; males rated females higher than females rated males based on humor. - Biological benefits of higher levels of dopamine - Higher social skills, contributing to evolutionary success - Influences people's perception of attractiveness - Humor is a sign of intellect and capacity for imagination - Humor is seen as part of personality - People believe that being with funny people will augment level of happiness - Plays a role in facilitating relationships - Validating relationships and marriages - Projecting less conflict in thoughts of future in the relationship - Culture and media portrays relationship standards - Men value reproductive attributes of women - Women value dependability and earning capacities; high SES Gerstorf, D., Lövdén, M., and Röcke, C. (2007). Well-being affects changes in perceptual speed in advanced old age: Longitudinal evidence for a dynamic link - Reports of well-being were found to influence subsequent decline in perceptual speed (time lags of 2 years). No evidence was found for a directed effect in the other direction. None of the potential covariates examined (initial health constraints, personality, and social participation) accounted for these differential lead–lag associations. Our results suggest that well-being is not only a consequence of but also a source for successful aging. Farrell (2016) What the U.S. can learn from Norway about retirement - Norway added benefits for the elderly who continue to work, where each year their pension increases if they continue to work up to the age of 75; more workers are working until later ages and are earning a larger pension. Sun (2013) Does Staying Healthy Reduce Your Lifetime Health Care Costs? - Those who postpone buying long-term health care insurance are likely to end up paying more for their care, because they may have to pay higher premiums once their health care declines (when they have not paid for coverage yet) and then run the risk of being denied from long-term health care insurance. Munnell (2013) Can the Bottom Third Work Longer? - Older men have opted for retirement benefits and stopped working, which has caused job openings for them to close. Now, men who want to work in their 60s and 70s have trouble finding work, especially if they do not have a higher education. The bottom line is that working longer may not be realistic or desirable for all members of society, and this possibility merits careful consideration when it comes to reforming the U.S. retirement income system. At a minimum, it seems important to maintain alternative sources of income for older workers in ill health or with poor labor market prospects. February 14, 2017 Chapter 6 Social Relationships: ● Convoy - network of social relationships ○ Includes friends, family ○ Different that cohort ■ Includes classmates and others who were born around the same time as you ○ Buffer for stress, just as social capital is a buffer for stress ● Internal working model of attachment ○ Blueprint of assumptions about a relationship ○ Comes from your parents and caregivers ○ What you experience shapes it ○ Prevalent in early adolescent relationships especially ● Evolutionary psychology ○ Social relationships play an important role in evolutionary psychology ■ Line of defense ■ Social buffer ■ Embedded need to belong ● Intimate partnerships ○ Cohabitation ○ Marriage ○ Committed partnerships ● Mate selection model ○ Three stages ■ Lust ● You can lust after someone without loving them ■ Attraction ● Romantic ● Obsessive ● Filter theory ○ Funnel effect of starting with many potential partners and then narrowing down to one person ○ E.g. The Bachelor ● Exchange theory ○ I have something to offer you and you have something to offer me ○ E.g. Gold diggers, Ivana Trump ● Higher levels of dopamine ○ Why attraction makes you feel good and happy ○ Your brain is on natural drugs
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