US Geological Survey report on Browning’s prediction:
That it made a leap from hypothesis to prediction without the intervening process
of showing verifiable evidence and hypothesis testing that makes mainstream
science a viable and successful discipline
Earthquake did not occur
What is the cost of this failed prediction??
State emergency preparedness agencies spent 200,00$ in responding to
Hundreds of thousands of lives were disturbed
Economic impact on communities throughout the region
Seismologist disruptions in order to deal with the media and public attention
Case #3 – 1975 Haicheng, China
- May have claimed to be a successful prediction
- First and only time seismologists succeeded in forecasting a large earthquake
that was about to destroy a major city
Was predicted months earlier, swarms of small earthquakes which preceded this
quake aided the prediction and also prompted citizenry to heed the warning
Was it really a successful prediction??
GLOBAL WARMING: Light and Electromagnetic Radiation
Necessary to understand the nature and properties of light and electromagnetic
Isaac Newton mid 1600’s: experimented by passing white light through a glass
Result = White light is broken up into the colors of the rainbow
Showed that **white light is composed of ALL of the colours of the rainbow
What is light?
According to Newton, a beam of light is composed of millions of tiny particles What is light?
Huygen’s Theory of Light
Proposed that light could be interpreted as a wave
Newton’s prestige was so strong that Huygen’s model was ignored by most
However, numerous experiments performed in 1700’s showed that light exhibits
many phenomena normally associated with waves
Thomas Young’s Experiment (1789)
If a beam of light is passed through two side-by-side slits, the emerging beams
interfere with each other and the result is…
Constructive and Destructive Interference!!!
This would not happen if light were composed of particles
1800 – Physicists accepted Huygen’s theory of light as a WAVE and rejected
Newton’s theory as a stream of particles
Quantum Theory of Light?
Experiments in the 1900’s showed that – Some effects of light can NOT be
explained using wave theory!
More appropriate to think of light as a stream of small particles called PHO