Global Biogeochemical Cycles7

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Boston College
Earth & Environmental Sciences
EESC 1158
Donald James

US Geological Survey report on Browning’s prediction: That it made a leap from hypothesis to prediction without the intervening process of showing verifiable evidence and hypothesis testing that makes mainstream science a viable and successful discipline Earthquake did not occur What is the cost of this failed prediction?? State emergency preparedness agencies spent 200,00$ in responding to prediction Hundreds of thousands of lives were disturbed Schools closed Economic impact on communities throughout the region Seismologist disruptions in order to deal with the media and public attention Case #3 – 1975 Haicheng, China - May have claimed to be a successful prediction - First and only time seismologists succeeded in forecasting a large earthquake that was about to destroy a major city Was predicted months earlier, swarms of small earthquakes which preceded this quake aided the prediction and also prompted citizenry to heed the warning Was it really a successful prediction?? GLOBAL WARMING: Light and Electromagnetic Radiation Necessary to understand the nature and properties of light and electromagnetic radiation LIGHT Isaac Newton mid 1600’s: experimented by passing white light through a glass prism Result = White light is broken up into the colors of the rainbow Showed that **white light is composed of ALL of the colours of the rainbow combined What is light? According to Newton, a beam of light is composed of millions of tiny particles What is light? Huygen’s Theory of Light Proposed that light could be interpreted as a wave  Newton’s prestige was so strong that Huygen’s model was ignored by most physicists However, numerous experiments performed in 1700’s showed that light exhibits many phenomena normally associated with waves Thomas Young’s Experiment (1789) If a beam of light is passed through two side-by-side slits, the emerging beams interfere with each other and the result is… Constructive and Destructive Interference!!! This would not happen if light were composed of particles 1800 – Physicists accepted Huygen’s theory of light as a WAVE and rejected Newton’s theory as a stream of particles Quantum Theory of Light? Experiments in the 1900’s showed that – Some effects of light can NOT be explained using wave theory! More appropriate to think of light as a stream of small particles called PHO
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