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Lecture

6. Classical Liberalism and Conservatism.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1031
Professor
Robert Savage
Semester
Spring

Description
Classical Liberalism and Conservatism: politics, economics, and society        1/29/14 • Period of conservative reaction 1840­1848 o Started by conference in Vienna o Very stable time in Europe • Conservatives supported established churches (both protestant and catholic), landowning  aristocracies, and government bureaucracies • Supported armed intervention • Classical liberalism was the main challenges to conservatism  • John Stuart Mill o Important political philosopher o Classical liberalist  o Appealing to the bourgeoisie  o Argued about the rights of the individual o Member of the British parliament o Wanted women to vote • Classical liberalism vs. American liberalism (very different)  • Classical libethlism grew with the Industrial Revolution • 2 Forms of 19  century liberalism o Economic liberalism o Political Liberalism  Influenced by enlightenment, French revolution, and American revolution • Liberalist beliefs o Argued for the rights of the individual  Equality before the law  Free speech  Freedom of the press  Freedom from arbitrary arrest o People should be able to live without government interference o Should be a document to guarantee those rights o Could accept living under a constitutional monarch as long as there was an  elected assembly to represent the interests of the people o Citizens should be able to participate in government o Believed it was a natural right to live peacefully and to oppose government  peacefully o Only men with property should be able to vote o Most liberals didn’t want people who didn’t have wealth • Took from Bill of Rights and Declaration of the Rights of Man • French revolution: Winners­bourgeoisie Losers –working class • Those that support liberalism o Opposed to the voted for the working class o Contempt for the old aristocracy o Contempt for the working poor o Believed the working poor should not be accepted as full citizens • Most liberal writers were opposed to the acceptance of women as equals • Economic liberalism o Need to accept and respect Laissez faire policy (hands off policy) o Led by Adam Smith • Adam Smith o Most famous component of economic liberalism o Part of the Scottish enlightenment o A Wealth of Nations o Natural forces at work that men could not change o Government should stay out of the economy o Condemned mercantilism (where government controls economy) o G
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