HIST 1088 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Second Opium War, Taiping Rebellion, Apsis

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8 Feb 2017
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Reform and Revolution in the Mid-19th Century!
!
1848 Revolutions!
Taiping Revolution!
The Second Opium War!
Indian Revolt!
The Abolition of Serfdom!
The American Civil War and the Abolition of Slavery!
!
the end of a series of older orders!
we are more on the way to the 20th century, not quite a legacy of the 18th century!
the process of change is violent!
most violent event of the 20th century!
we express sympathy for these events, some successes and failures!
avoid reading this in terms of the historical favorite when they lost and won!
figure out what is happening, why do we have have a confluence of events, how do they play
into each other!
!
Napoleonic Wars!
Apogee at 1812, scope of the empire but also understates his achievements!
invades Russia and part of the ottoman empire!
ideological eects extend beyond the reach of the armies of the Revolution!
temporal ripple, the practices and ideals of the french revolution, which are largely defeated in
1815!
napoleon's empire is broken up!
eort to set the clock back is already partial!
subject to modification at the Congress of Vienna!
create a new balance of power!
things don't stay static in Europe!
civil conflict in Spain and Portugal!
war of independence in Greece!
creation of Belgium!
for 30 years or so there is relative conservative stability along with the technological and
intellectual changes rapidly taking place!
fairly widespread discontent with this conservative reaction!
embodied in the monarchical regimes in Austria, Russia, and Prussia!
not quite in France!
!
French Revolution as a Template!
language of revolution!
emergence of the notions of left and right!
importance of liberal constitutionalism!
reform of an old order!
big ideas coming out of the french revolution -> ideas of an ancien regime (old order) !
read as conservative and reactionary, alliance of church and king!
in definition is in conflict with liberal constitutionalist progression!
!
Britain remains a constitutional monarchy!
uses a constitutional structure throughout 19th century!
idea of an opposition between a young liberal romantic, democratic modernizing force,
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educated populace!
ability of urban revolution to enact a new ideal set of rights becomes pervasive in continental
Europe!
!
France - 1830!
enacted in the home of revolution!
in terms of the place where they take most frequently!
and in terms of the idea of revolution taking place in the mindset of the people, shown in
literature!
failed revolution of 1832!
the vocabulary and the way to do revolution is strikingly constant!
how do the people rise up during the failed revolution of 1832? How do you have revolution?!
barricade the streets, insist on taking control of the streets by putting up barricades,
defend!
liberal revolutionaries call to arms, chase out the forces of reaction!
what happens to these barricades?!
going to military conflict, symbolic and military with the armed forces!
provide cover, if armed forces fail to take barricades which they rarely fail to do!
they will withdraw and revolutionaries capture the city!
this is done many times in Europe in 1830s and 40s!
action and reaction are rehearsed, a sense of stage theatrics!
talked about, shown in paintings and literature!
talk about the circumstances of revolution and the coalition needed to be built!
!
1848-1852 France - Monarchy to 2nd Republic to 2nd Empire!
France has a revolution in 1830 that kicks out the reactionary monarch!
installs Louis Philipe!
another failed revolution against him !
in 1848 (Know this year well) there are revolutions that sweep across Europe!
!
1848 - Germany!
Revolution in France Ripples across other regions of Europe!
no country called Germany at this point!
strong intellectual and cultural movement as a rise after the napoleonic invasions!
create a Germania !
seeks to create a Germany though the boundaries are problematic!
because of the problem of what to do about 1 religion!
Germany is the land of people who speak german, land of former holy roman empire,
religious sect!
it can include Austria, vienna is a deeply german city!
Austrian empire is more multiethnic!
boundaries of this are a problem!
they turn out to be the least of the problems!
shortly after the paris revolution, the spring of 48, there are a series of revolutions in Germany!
barricades usually succeed at the outset!
withdraw troops, new regime in power, resignation!
usually a strong reaction!
in a few places, some liberalization is left in!
in most, liberal reforms are suppressed by loyal monarchy troops!
revolution which is dramatic, has flag waving, liberal intellectuals, it has a national assembly in
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