Poly Sci 10/16/2013
Marx, Communist Manifesto
Sought to expose man’s nonrational side.
Argument: If people have hidden sides and ways of thinking then how can we have democracy considering
they cannot be expected to understand/vote on policy or represent the citizenry.
On surface: People appear to exercise free will and logical thinking, but in reality when you look below the
surface (Gnostics), there are irresistible surfaces that we don’t understand and that throw us about and
force us to do things that if we were in fact logical and rational we wouldn’t do. Some of those things clearly
go against our interests.
Marx argues that they’re economic forces.
Freud argues they’re society/civilization forces.
In every way, all we do/think/say/etc. is predetermined.
Not individuals, part of a whole sea of people within a civilization b/c we are predetermined beings and are
100% unable to change it unless you understand it, like Marx, in which case you have a revolution.
Freud: Society is the death of you because people need to be tamed/housebroken like wild animals to be
able to survive in it.
Takes away all of your rights and freedoms.
Society & government are the primary source of misery in the human race.
Man is aggressive but you can’t be in society so it goes against our nature.
Both: Religion/ethics/morality is mass delusion
Marx calls it the opiate of the masses .”
Contrary to Both: Each person personally responsible for our actions because we committed them with free
Marx and Freud argue none of us are individually responsible oanything .
There are no absolutes of time or space, good or bad, of knowledge, and, above all, of value.
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity played strongly into moral relativity
Born in 18181883
Wrote Manifesto in 1848 at request of German Worker’s Club.
Caused much upheaval in Europe.
Collaborated with German businessman who bankrolled his work.
Greatest and most wellknown of socialism philosophers. Humanist and passionate believer in social justice.
Saw the effect of poor industrial revolution conditions and spent his life figuring out how they got to those
conditions and how to get ou