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Philosophy 1-15.docx

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PHIL 1070
Robert Mc Gill

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Philosophy 01/15/2014 Validity and rationality: If an argument is valid, rationality requires: If you accept premises, yomust  accept conclusion To reject conclusion, yomust  reject a premise An argument is Sound iff: (1) it is a Valid argument; and (2) it has True premises. Justifying an Ethical Standard Ethics = the study of right action; the study of objective values What ought  I to do? What is theright thing to do? Different senses oshould : Practical should, legal should, moral/ethical should ­ We usually justify claims about the rightness or wrongness of an action by appeal to some rule or  standard. ­ But we can only show that an action is right/wrong by appeal tocorrect  standard. ­ In order to know what we ought to do, we must first justify an ethical standard. Ethics and Religion One standard to which we might appeal when answering “What should I do” is Religion Problem: Not everyone is religious; Not everyone shares the same religion Problem with Religion as the Ethical Standard: We want to be able to sawhy  e.g. murder is wrong without appeal to religion. We want to be able to convincanyone  (including an atheist) that murder is wrong. We want basic ethical rules that don’t rely solely on religious belief,anyc rational person can  agree. Plato’s  Euthyphro Early Socratic dialogue on the nature of morality Interlocutors: Socrates and Euthyphro Euthyphro claims to be an expert on morality Socrates asks for clarification What is morally good? Euthyphro’s answer: The good is what is loved by all the Gods The “Euthyphro Question” Does God command X  because it is morally good ? Or, is X m
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