Validity and rationality:
If an argument is valid, rationality requires:
If you accept premises, yomust accept conclusion
To reject conclusion, yomust reject a premise
An argument is Sound iff:
(1) it is a Valid argument; and
(2) it has True premises.
Justifying an Ethical Standard
Ethics = the study of right action; the study of objective values
What ought I to do?
What is theright thing to do?
Different senses oshould :
Practical should, legal should, moral/ethical should
We usually justify claims about the rightness or wrongness of an action by appeal to some rule or
But we can only show that an action is right/wrong by appeal tocorrect standard.
In order to know what we ought to do, we must first justify an ethical standard.
Ethics and Religion
One standard to which we might appeal when answering “What should I do” is Religion
Problem: Not everyone is religious; Not everyone shares the same religion
Problem with Religion as the Ethical Standard: We want to be able to sawhy e.g. murder is wrong without appeal to religion.
We want to be able to convincanyone (including an atheist) that murder is wrong.
We want basic ethical rules that don’t rely solely on religious belief,anyc rational person can
Early Socratic dialogue on the nature of morality
Interlocutors: Socrates and Euthyphro
Euthyphro claims to be an expert on morality
Socrates asks for clarification
What is morally good?
The good is what is loved by all the Gods
The “Euthyphro Question”
Does God command X because it is morally good ?
Or, is X m