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PHIL 4406

Philosophy Study Guide 1. What is Locke's view of personal identity? What is Hume's? Locke Not useful to define the soul because we can never know______ Personal Identity is the continuity of life through duration of time Even if a ship has every single part replaced it is still the starting ship because of the continuity of consciousness Continuous stream of consciousness Teleportation We should punish the person not the physical man If the man did not have a continuity of consciousness between a wrong doing …. then he is not the same m an therefore should not be punished Hume We commit error when we claim a person is the “same” person who did this at one time…riley sub 1 and riley sub each moment I am a different person….when love someone we love a ton of different people Hume suggests we re-do language “the idea of this---“ Personal identity is a bundled succession of related ideas—bundled succession of sub- rileys The self is a succession –like a movie!! Metaphysical “self”—imperfect Identity--??? Nominal “Self”—this DNE but is what we call the “same” person Attributions of personal identity are sometimes true…??? Souls DNE People are not single beings 2. What is Spinoza's solution to the mind/body problem? What is Leibniz's? Spinoza Only one substance exists for Spinoza---God or Nature/universe Since God is everything, everything is god, and nothing is special, nothing is god Why worship God? This follows catholic religion—god is everywhere and in everything God is an attribute of thought/mind God is attribute of extension/body Mind and body are just modes of god—ways of being/doing/expressing MONISTNeutral Monism PROBLEM___ garbage can think Leibniz Substance monist also!! Proposed that the only substance is a monad and monads are the equivalent of a mind or a soul Amonad; Atom of nature building block Were all crated at once Are all different Simple God is a monad reverse of Spinoza They have internal programming No free will God creates and governs the interaction of monads 2 types; Those who can perceive their states-thinking Those who cannot perceive THIS SOLVES GARBAGE WORRY 3. How does skepticism figure in Descartes' views? How does it figure in Hume's? Descartes Skeptism Skeptical about everything he was taught to be true—ALL KNOWLEDGE Starts with nothing and builds off that—builds system from scratch Any doubt throw it out 3 Degrees of Skeptism 1. Sense from FarAway 2. Sense from Close Up [dreams] 3. Sensory Qualities and Math [evil genius] Skeptical with deduction…he questions the validity of the premises he been taught that were true Hume Skeptical aboutALL KNOWLEDGE—well most—determining what we can know Starts with everything and proves it all unjustifiable—breaks the system down He is skeptical in an inductive way…he proves induction/experience cannot be justified because we cannot know for sure if the future will be like the past Hume proves that we can only KNOW (belief*justification*truth) what we are experiencing now and relation of ideas Relation of ideas vs Matter of Fact 4. In
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