Philosophy Study Guide
1. What is Locke's view of personal identity? What is Hume's?
Not useful to define the soul because we can never know______
Personal Identity is the continuity of life through duration of time
Even if a ship has every single part replaced it is still the starting ship because of the
continuity of consciousness
Continuous stream of consciousness
We should punish the person not the physical man
If the man did not have a continuity of consciousness between a wrong doing ….
then he is not the same m an therefore should not be punished
We commit error when we claim a person is the “same” person who did this at one
time…riley sub 1 and riley sub 2..at each moment I am a different person….when love
someone we love a ton of different people
Hume suggests we re-do language “the idea of this---“
Personal identity is a bundled succession of related ideas—bundled succession of sub-
The self is a succession –like a movie!!
Metaphysical “self”—imperfect Identity--???
Nominal “Self”—this DNE but is what we call the “same” person
Attributions of personal identity are sometimes true…???
People are not single beings
2. What is Spinoza's solution to the mind/body problem? What is
Only one substance exists for Spinoza---God or Nature/universe
Since God is everything, everything is god, and nothing is special, nothing is god
Why worship God?
This follows catholic religion—god is everywhere and in everything
God is an attribute of thought/mind
God is attribute of extension/body
Mind and body are just modes of god—ways of being/doing/expressing
PROBLEM___ garbage can think
Substance monist also!!
Proposed that the only substance is a monad and monads are the equivalent of a
mind or a soul
Amonad; Atom of nature building block
Were all crated at once
Are all different
God is a monad reverse of Spinoza
They have internal programming
No free will
God creates and governs the interaction of monads
Those who can perceive their states-thinking
Those who cannot perceive
THIS SOLVES GARBAGE WORRY
3. How does skepticism figure in Descartes' views? How does it
figure in Hume's?
Skeptical about everything he was taught to be true—ALL KNOWLEDGE
Starts with nothing and builds off that—builds system from scratch
Any doubt throw it out
3 Degrees of Skeptism
1. Sense from FarAway
2. Sense from Close Up [dreams]
3. Sensory Qualities and Math [evil genius]
Skeptical with deduction…he questions the validity of the premises he been taught that
Skeptical aboutALL KNOWLEDGE—well most—determining what we can know
Starts with everything and proves it all unjustifiable—breaks the system down
He is skeptical in an inductive way…he proves induction/experience cannot be justified
because we cannot know for sure if the future will be like the past
Hume proves that we can only KNOW (belief*justification*truth) what we are
experiencing now and relation of ideas
Relation of ideas vs Matter of Fact