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POLI 2420 (1)
Lecture

History of modern iran class notes.docx

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Political Science
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POLI 2420
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Ali Banuazizi

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1 9/4/12 • great continuity with past and present in Iran • 2,500 yrs ago Persia was a rival of the Greeks • Persian lit and poetry is extremely rich • Persians hold poetry highly in their culture • the Persian language has remained mostly unchanged throughout the years • Iran was never colonized o but in 19 century was fought over by GB and Russia (imperial powers) • US didn’t become involved in Iranian affairs until into 20 century: invasion of Iran during WWII o so was a popular power for a while • after war Soviets stayed in Iran • 1945-6 US got Soviets to leave, relations btwn Iran and US began to deteriorate • 1953 Iran elected democratic guy, CIA deposed him o first time that CIAengaged in regime change • 1978-9 Islamic Revolution o was the first time in Iran that an Islamic government was in powerIslam then became a political force o now a theocracy and enemy of the US • US and west represent a secular government 9/6/12 • INTRODUCTION • the Soviet Union to the N of Iran was a huge power and potential threat (esp their th republics directly above Iran) through the 20 century until 1989 (or 1991?) • USSR invaded Afghanistan and set up own gov-so palpable threat to Iran o US and European countries concerned about this devlmpt • most focus was on Iraq bc invaded by the US and had huge ability to invade Iran • some thought that the real mission of the invasion of Iraq was to invade Iran • in 2001 then US invaded Afghanistan so Iran really concerned • Iran is 1/5 of the US and 3x the size of France nd • Iran has the 2 largest oil reserves in this region • about 55% of all the oil in the world is produced in the Persian Gulf - Iran is very strategically located o all of this all has to pass through the Strait of Hormuz o if this is blocked, there goes all the oil and the world’s economy is completely changed • for months Iraq (Saddam Hussein) invaded Kuwait and declared it a province of Iraq o George W liberated Kuwait by invading Iraq o important bc principal export of Kuwait is oil o fear that Iraq would then become a major player of the oil market • US still has a huge fleet of ships stationed in the Persian Gulf 2 • Caspian region is also a place where a lot of oil is being extracted o by: Iran,Azer, Turkmen, Russia o oil has to be transported by pipeline, many of which go through Iran • All of the CentralAsian Republics are landlocked and have to exit their oil through another country like: o Afghanistan (but difficult terrain), Iran (really good choice) • mountainous country: 2 major o Alburz mtns from Turkey toAfghanistan, continues into Pakistan, India, Nepal  in Iran is 2 tallest mtn: o Zagros mtns on W and S part of Iran extending from Turkey and Iraq along the N part of Caspian Sea • Capital: Tehran on NW part o pop: 12-13 million ppl • other major cities: Isfahan, Shiraz, Caprese • whole pop: approaching 80 million o have roughly the same pop as Egypt and Turkey o about 70% in urban areas o 30% in rural areas th • major transformation in Iran took place in 20 century o primarily a shift from agriculture to industry o political implication: the villages in rural areas are still very isolated bc of mountains  makes it difficult to mobilize and change things • demographics of Iran: o 55%-60% are Persian  speak the dominant language Persian (“Farsi” is the name in that language) o 25% areAzeris  (they make up roughly 3x the number ofAzeris in the actual Republic) – significant group that could potentially stir up trouble in Iran  in the NW region of the country, next to Turkey and then project South  only really different from the Persians in language: Turkish  are 3 provinces ofAzer. in Iran plus a Republic ofAzerbaijan which used to be part of Iran o Kurds  the Kurdish area of Iraq is doing well, may even secede from Iraq • right next in Iran  also a Kurdish pop in Turkey  plus Kurds in Iran 3  SO… could have a Kurdish nationAND now another threat to Iran 9/11/12 • calling someone anArab means that they speakArabic • religion: o 99% are Muslims (Moslem in Iran)  74,680,000 o Christians 117,700 (most of those that are in Iran areArmenian) o Zoroastrians 25,300 o Jewish 8,700 o Other 49,100 o Unidentified 265,900 (Baha’i’, might beAtheists but very unlikely)  Iran wants to label them as such so that they seem to be confused about their Iranian identity o Baha’i is the largest religious minority about 300,000 ppl are this-not recognized by the state as an official religion o Sunni and Shi’ite: 85% of the world is Sunni, buut most (90%) in Iran are Shi’a • major cities: o Tehran - capital of Iran, 12-14 million ppl o Isfahan o Tabriz- in Azerbaijan o Mashhad o Shiraz • urban pop: 71.5%, rural pop: 28.5% • origins: migratory tribes from CentralAsia, 2-3 millennium ago waves of migration began o called Indo-European because traveled throughout Europe and India • two groups came to present day Iran: Persians moved farther south, Medes settled in the northern part of Iran-providence of Fars • around 550BC when the two provinces were united into one-grew into Persian Empire o came to be the largest empire in the world, perhaps the first major empire in the world • Cyrus the Great unified these two provinces, sort of the founder • Cyrus’conquests did not lead to enslavement of the conquered but accepted them and gave them freedoms o such as the Jews, who he liberated and helped go back to Jerusalem o Cyrus revered in the Hebrew Bible • Cyrus and his successors established a dynasty called: Achaemenids (550 BC- 330BC) • during this time the Greeks are excelling in philosophy, science, self-governance, etc. 4 • but it seems that the Persians had an advantage over the Greeks in actually running an empire • Persepolis was the capital of this empire • this empire fell toAlexander the Great • empire divided when he died which led to the emergence of various countries 9/13/12 • the rise of the Zoroastrian religion was the first time there was one God (monotheism) o among his teachings was the notion of accountability for one’s actions o Day of Judgment o the God of good and light vs. the God of evil and darkness • Theodicy: if there is an all-knowing, all-powerful, generous God, why is life so full of suffering? o answers: testing us, there exists evil, o in Zoroastrian evil is elevated until almost at the same level as God o continuing cosmic struggle btwn evil and good with the hope that good shall prevail • Mani  Manichaeism also evolved in ancient Persia o world view: split btwn good and evil o St. Augustine was one for awhile • Mazdakism o tried to bring the thinking about the struggle btwn good and evil to a societal context o another offshoot of Zoroastrianism • the downfall of the Persian empire took place around 658 CE by theArab armies • RISE OF ISLAM • begins in (Saudi) Arabia th • 7 century CEArabia: o was not very populated, tribal society o different tribes had different religions-polytheistic society o were some followers of Christianity and Judaism so idea of monotheism was not alien to these ppl o caravans traveled across Arabia a lot  prosperous city was Mecca • in 570 CE Muhammad was born into one of the more prominent tribes in Mecca • orphaned by 5 or 6 and raised by an uncle • raised in commerce, worked for Khadija • unlike Jesus, Muhammad was involved in the daily work of his society o Muhammad was on ordinary man entrusted by God to carry the message of monotheism to the world o Muhammad was the Messenger of God • in 610 CE when he was contemplating in the mtns. he hear a voice that told him to “recite”…taught man what he did not know (language, writing, reading) o M proclaims this message to others 5 • he continued to receive these revelations from God/Angel Gabriel • Koran: what God said so is very sacred • because the Christian Bible represents different and contradictory accounts interpretations are acceptable • however, with the Koran it is mostly taken to be literal so more difficult to allow for reforms to society and different interpretations • from 610-632 CE (when he died) Muhammad continued to receive these messages • Migration (Hijra) from Mecca to Medina: 622 CE • Muhammad became a spiritual and political leader of the Muslim community in Medina (622-632 CE) o fusion of religion and politics; no parallel in the life of Jesus • Medina: “the city” of the Prophet • 3 Fundamental Principles of Islam (common to both Shi’ites and Sunnis): o 1. unity of God: only one God, innately goes against the concept of a son of God, absolute monotheism o 2. Muhammad is God’s final messenger: (the seal of the Prophets) Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad are all revered and considered Prophets o 3. Belief in the Day of Judgment: (Mu’ad) eternal punishment or eternal • Shi’ites have two more… th o 4. Imamate: prophet has successors (Imams), the 12 one disappeared and will return at the end of times o 5. Justice: is a key principle in religion • The Qur’an on other monotheistic religions: o Muhammad was known to be a religious reformer, calling ppl back to religion o Torah is true, Gospels have religious significance: light and guidance o God has established the same religion withAbraham, Moses, and Jesus o remember her who preserved her chastity…we breathed in her life… made her and her son a token for mankind” 9/20/12 • the text (the Qur’an) was what made the religion sacred b/c it is the direct word of God • from 622-632 M. not only spread God’s message but was the ruler of this first Islamic community, or Islamic state o Islamic state has no counterparts in Christianity or Judaism o Islamic state = no secularism, theocratic • after M. died religion and government separated = secularism • the “Rightly Guided Caliphs” (632-661 C.E.) = 29 years o Abu Bakr (632-634)  he affirmed that the prophetic age of Islam has ended with M.’s death, but now will continue worshipping and attend to affairs of the Islamic community 6 o Umar (634-644)  the Islamic community expanded a lot under this guy o Uthman (644-656) o Ali (656-661) • these caliphs were companions of the Prophet so made sense for them to take over leadership • a lot of expansion of the Islamic community into Persia during these 29 yrs • *Islam places greater emphasis on justice and equality, those that are closest to God are those that are most pious (not like you could buy your way into heaven indulgences) o ideals of equality and justice makes Islam very attractive to ppl o reality: when Persia was conquered there was a hierarchy with theArabs at the top  ex: severely punished if spoke Persian • after the rightly guided caliphs there were caliphates, dynastic regimes • the Umayyad Caliphs, ruled from Damascus (661-750 C.E.) = 89 yrs o Mu’awiya (661-680) o Yazid I (680-683) o Mu’awiya II (683-684) o … o Marwan II al-Himar (744-750) • Umayyad Caliphate overthrown and replaced • the Abbasid Caliphs, ruled from Baghdad (750-1258 C.E.) = 508 yrs • empire extended from NAfrica through Iran andAfghanistan • • Sunni interpretation of Islam o anyone can be leader of Islamic community o most Muslims follow Sunni Islam o accepts the line of succession above • Shi’ite Islam o Ali was the closest to M. so he should have succeeded the Prophet first  was M.’s cousin and son-in-law (married Fatima) o claim that M. said he wantedAli to be his successor o successors should be members of the M.’s family 7 • these differences of opinions led to the Shi’ites and Sunnis to be involved in conflicts • however, Shi’ites remained in the community (as minority group) • Ali was assassinated, big deal for the Shi’ites • now Shi’ites believe thatAli’s son should be leader: Hassan then bro Hossein (these two are the grandsons of the Prophet) • Battle of Karbala (680 C.E.): btwn Hossein and army, massacred all the ppl and took Hossein’s head o  great deal of righteousness felt by the Shi’ite who felt that they were fighting for their beliefs o this battle is commemorated o also implies their persecution in the larger world, shows continued plight of this minority group, celebrating victimhood (invokes a lot of religious passion)  more difficult to sustain this narrative in Iran since Shi’ites are the majority (Shi’ism became official religion in Iran in 1501) 9/25/12 th • modern period for Iran: beginning of 19 century • Iran is a society that has been relatively isolated until the modern period when the British Empire and the Russians enter Iran • Brits and Russians constantly determined to beat the other, Iran was a playing field • Afghanistan and later Iran were made buffer zones so that Russian and British colonies did not touch each other • access to Iran would give them access to the Persian Gulf and theArabian Sea would give Russians ability to challenge the British navy • Qajar period: 1796 until 1925 = 129 yrs • Five major transitions: o from a medieval Islamic monarchy to a constitutional monarchy  king became bound by the constitution o from a relatively isolated country to a major state in the rivalry btwn Russian and the British Empire (semi-colonial situation) o isolated economy to one that was integrated in the world economy  subsistence to barter and money, imports and exports o from rural/tribal society to rural/urban society where power of tribes very much reduced o culturally isolated one with increasing contact and familiarity with Western liberal ideas and culture  ex: representative form of gov, rights of the citizens • 7 shahs, all with fairly short reigns except Naser-al-Din Shah who ruled for 50 yrs • Fath-Ali Shah had about 1,000 wives, while he was traveling he entrusted the affairs of the state to his nephew • before the Qajar was the Zand Dynasty with capital in Shiraz 8 • 4 phases of Qajar Era: o Establishment of the Qajar Dynasty  rise ofAqa (Agha) Mohammad Khan and his short reign  he immediately began to expand territory o Reign of Fath-Ali Shah and nephew, Mohammad Shah; confrontations with Russia (Treaties of 1813 and1828) and with Britain (1838-9 and 1856-7)  capital moved to Tehran o Long reign of Naser-al-Din Shah; Tobacco Revolt of 1891-2 o Constitutional Revolution (1905-1925); reign of Mozaffar-al-Din Shah, Mohammad-Ali Shah, andAhmad Shah • 2 Russo-Persian War and the Turkomanchai Treaty of 1828 o hostilities btwn Persia and Russia resumed in 1826 (one before in 1813 where Persians lost)  saw that Russians had superior technology o British ambassador to Iran brought them technology and education =  o Persia gained initial success, recovered most of the territories ceded by the Gulistan Treaty, eventually the Russians got ahead, Tabriz fell, someAzer. leaders went to Russian side o new Treaty Of Turkomanchai: the ceding of the earlier territories confirmed, a compensation of 30 mil silver rubles paid by Persia, various trade concessions for Russia • Concession Hunting by Foreign Powers in Qajar Iran, 1850s-1890s • 1850s: telegraph lines, given to the British, who wanted to have rapid telegraphic connection to India (Iran had it extended btwn Tehran and major cities) • 1872: Reuter Concession included: railroad and streetcar construction, all unexploited mineral-extraction rights, all unexploited irrigation works, establishing a national bank, various industrial and agricultural projects • in return: initial sum of 40,000 pounds plus modest royalties thereafter, Reuter Concession was eventually cancelled • the manner in which the concession were given was corrupt 9/27/12 • Iran’s population: 1800-1925 o urban remained the same, rural increased, tribal decreased a lot, 5-6 mill to 12 mill • for the most part subsistence agriculture • tribe: made up of clans and families who see themselves connected together because of a common past and culture o nomadic lifestyle o attitude of restlessness: not a sedentary lifestyle, act aggressively to get what they need (from caravans) if necessary o hierarchal structure: elders above others 9 • significance: b/c maintain their lifestyle so independently they do not have any concept of being a part of the greater state, makes it more challenging making tribal members into citizens, difficult to get tribes to follow the state’s rule of law • to get tribes under control of the state: must make deals with the tribal leaders and force them to pay taxes or levies OR pit the tribes against each other • IRAN’S SOCIALSTRUCTURE UNDER THE QAJAR’S • at the top was the shah; “shadow of God on earth” o his religious legitimacy depended on the support of the clergy (ulama) o also is concept in Shi’ism that any world rulers (shah) are not legitimate rulers during the absence of the hidden imam • 3 broad social groups or hierarchies: o the governing notables (shah=King @ the top, provincial governors, mayors, )  governors were appointed, job was to collect taxes from the ppl  some governors were tribal chiefs, others were princes  maybe a form of colonialism within own state  governorships could be bought (bribes) and sold • example today: huge contributors to campaigns often get jobs after the win  this entire structure of privilege was produced bc of the labor of the ppl o the religious hierarchy (ulama)  broad spectrum of positions  ulama relatively independent from the state  top: mohtahids (jurists of the highest rank; are able to pass independent judgment) – included one or more ayatollahs; are the “sources of emulation”  clerics were appointed by the Shah to certain positions (“dependent ulama”)  “independent ulama” who relied on the wealthier townsppl for their livelihood and activities  function of the clergy: spiritual, judicial, philanthropic (to charities, awqaf), educational, etc. o the townspeople, commercial businessmen tribesmen, and peasants  were dependent primarily on the religious hierarchy  merchants at the top of this one  then, shopkeepers, artisans, tradesmen  bottom: peasants • at this time the only place to go to schools were at religious schools • seems that the monarchs in this part of the world felt the need to have a lifestyle that rivaled that of monarchs in Europe • from 1888-89 distribution of resources: o army: 43% 10  military might was very important to the Qajars  but the army was not well organized o administration, included salaries: 31% o royal court: 12% o pensions: 13% o college: 1%  education not considered to be very important o no money for welfare institutions like hospitals  philanthropy of clergy pays for this o no money for infrastructure either • there was a very close connection between the clergy and the merchants • an Islamic city is defined first by the mosque for the Friday prayers • bazzar: a winding alleyway with vaulted ceilings that leads from the mosque o physical proximity btwn the merchants and the clergy o serves the merchants well to be seen with a clergy person of good standing o merchants to clergy?? o is called mosque-bazaar alliance or clergy-merchant alliance 10/2/12 • test: ethnolinguistic composition, don’t really need to know about the pre-Islamic areas of Iran; know about the ppl, general society, hierarchy, social structure, role of the state, relationship btwn Iran and major powers in 19 century • 10 short answer questions, 3 essays • shah wielded power without any checks, no constitution to abide by • European society was a feudal society before monarchy and Parliament worked together o feudal society: many hierarchies within a single state where the lord provides land and protection to the peasants, and they provide labor to the lord; the lords are inferior to the state’s monarch and must pay him taxes o the lords were powerful b.c they owned land • in Iran, 19 century: tribal chieftains like the lords, they paid the king and ruled over tribes; governors and princes appointed to areas of land; o Differences: the king’s power was arbitrary, he gave temporal power to the governors and chieftains -- he was able to take away the land from ppl, no laws bound the king’s power; other: the Qajar kings did not really have a lot of power beyond where they lived b.c depended on tribes for military might th • in middle of the 19 century some social mvmts with religious elements o ex. Baha’i mvmt • by the end of the century, Naser al-Din Shah had been king for some time and have developed a sort of bureaucracy o had departments within his state • at this time more awareness of the West among the elite, intelligensia o ex. equality, evolution, science, freedom 11 • role of foreign powers, mostly Russian and Brit o sense of resentment among the ppl when concessions made for them • 1890: tobacco concession granted to Brit o  rebellion: boycott against smoking, used telegraph to spread the word, the merchants at the forefront of this rebellion, clergy deemed the concession wrong and then said the smoking was against Islam o even the Shah’s wives and others in the court stopped smoking o up until this time the society had been rather passive o the concession was cancelled b.c of a popular protest  maybe the ppl do have power… o dress rehearsal for constitutional revolution? • 1905-1907: Constitutional Revolution o first time in the ME that ppl rise up against their leader and demand a constitution o at this time, also high inflation, food shortage  gov blamed the merchants o Shah ordered some of the most venerated and popular merchants to undergo punishment and humiliation of bastinado (foot whipping)   sympathetic rxn, ppl asked clergy to help with protest o ppl demanded a House of Justice o intelligensia that had been exiled could publish newspapers that criticized the regime and encouraged ppl to challenge their rule and then have them distributed inside Iran  one newspaper advocated a central law system, a constitution so that the freedoms of ppl would be protected  now ppl want this too and a legislative body o ppl protested and had strikes against the appointment of Naus as chief of customs – important to note that the ppl believed that could make a difference this way o ---ppl who needed refuge could enter into a sacred space, like a mosque, and take bast o this mvmt forced the king to accept an assembly to draft the constitution: 1906 o elections were held to choose a Parliament o six classes of the electorate: qajar princes, clergy (ulama) and theology students, nobles and notables, merchants with a def place of business, landowners of a certain wealth of property, craftsmen and tradesmen from recognized guilds with rent bill the same or greater than the average rent of the area  left out are peasants 10/9/12 • Constitutional Mvmt began in late 1905 o in 1906 a new parliament was formed by on death bed shah signed the order 12 • new shah unfriendly toward constitutionalists, ignored Parliament, began to reestablish his absolute authority o  Parliament upset, the ppl began to mobilize • the British were initially friendly toward the mvmt b.c they had a gov based on the rule of law (Magna Carta) • Russians against it from the beginning b.c wary, just had own rev • in 1870s rise of Germany, talk about WW in early 1900s o Russians and British decided on the 1907Agreement to divide up the country into three spheres (north-Russia, south-Britain, neutral zone in the middle) o did want to waste time worrying about a mvmt in Iran, easier if there was peace the these countries got their way • Parliament decides what to do about the budget! o but very few knew how to collect taxes, distribute money, create a tax code o thought that they needed an expert that wasn’t British or Russian turned toAmerica (disinterested power) and hired Morgan Shuster (sp?) • in a few months Shuster made a new tax code, rational budget, created order and fairness to the entire budgetary system • the ppl wanted him out b.c he was a foreigner and from a country that could be a threat o Shuster out, king began to assert control over budget again • Titles of Newspapers and Journals published after the formation of the ConstituentAssembly in 1906 o Progress,Awakening, fatherland, Humanity, Unity, Hope, The New Age, Equality (comes from idea of European socialists), Rights, Free, Voice of the Fatherland o shows that the ppl of Iran believed that they were on the edge of a new era in which they are on the same modern basis as the most advanced countries • at this time country not really literate (find stats) • general observations of the Revolution of 1905-09 o did not involve the military, only military force was the Cossack Brigade who was not involved o no one leader; leaders came from clergy, Westernized intellectuals, merchants, and tribal leaders o urban affair b.c of geographic isolation, illiteracy, and passivity of the peasants o after a constitution had been granted and Parliament established (accomplished too easily) the real struggles began, some violence ensued o only concession to the clergy was that they could establish a 5-member Council of Mojtahids to ensure that legislation passed by the Majlis did not violate Islam, was never put into practice  secular constitution 13 10/11/12 • 1901 D’Arcy Concession given to Brit to explore for oil in southern areas of Iran • 1908 large amount of oil discovered in one of his wells o changed world economyAND relations with Iran and the ME • 1912 the British navy switched from coal to oil, British navy huge so a big deal • Khuzistan is the region of Iran that produces oil • Abadan had the world’s largest oil refinery • in 1908 theAnglo-Persian Co formed ( Anglo-Iranian co) • in 1950’s became BP • SaudiArabia is now the major producer of oil in the world • Pahlavi (1925-1979) • Reza Shah (1925-1941) • in 1906 the Parliament did not have a lot of pwr b.c of anti-constitutionalists and foreign powers (Germans now interested in Iran too) • 1907 Brits and Russians divided country into three spheres: one was neutral • various tribal groups dominating vast regions and constantly challenging authority of weak states of the Qajars o problem: these tribes were befriended by foreign pwrs (mostly the British) • for the Brits to protect their oil fields they entered into an agreement with Shaykh Khaz’al (leader of most pwrful tribe in Khuzistan) o they propped him up and he provided militants o Southern Persian Riflers o this helped to prevent the gov from establishing any authority in this region • in NW provinces,Azerbaijan o Russians entered into an agreement with Khiabani • in North Central region, Gilan o Jangali headed mvmt here (?) o the Socialist Republic of Iran was formed here • WWI, allies entered Iran, including Germans • the Ottoman Turks moved into Iran ad began to establish own zone there • the central gov of Iran was weak and corrupt • Russian Revolution occurred right after WWI in 1917 • vision was a world socialist revolution • Russia was now a country that had cast aside all their imperialist ambitions for more equality o British worried this strain of thought would influence their society and that of their colonies (Asia, Iran) • British had a new challenge with the Soviets and thus had to change their way of battling them • Soviets now committed to the rise of the working class and the poor, British afraid of this influence on Iranians 14 o Russians no longer interested in playing the game of encouraging corrupt actions • in 1921 (?) all the concessions and treaties that the Russians had with Iran were annulled • 1919 treaty, committed the British to establishing a way to resist Soviet influence in Iran o Iran was not a colony but was protected • British now in control of the military, economy, central gov in Tehran, and autonomy seeking mvmts with tribes in the south • Reza Khan was an officer in the Cossack Brigade • he helped execute a coup in Tehran and declare new gov • initially was not waged against the royal court, but reinforcing te power of the state now supported by the military force under his command (with huge influence by the Brits) • Reza told current Qajar king,Ahmad Shah, not to worry about what this would mean for him • Reza was commander of armed forces War Minister… • Reza Khan was a nationalist, but made Zia (pro-British), journalist the Prime Minister o why?: response to potential threat from Soviets • British threw support behind Reza Khan • Reza Khan now had to take on succession mvmts; he was trying to establish a modern state and central state o a modern state rises above all other influential powers and can control the country • gradually with the rise of Reza there is the emergence of the modern state • for Reza the modern state has to be associated with a modern military o established a universal draft o centrally controlled military o uniformity o foreign advisors used to help with modernization of the military • Reza pushed out Zia and made himself PM • 1924 Reza was recognized as running the country, looked at what was happening in Turkey • in 1923-4 in Turkey became a republic, byAtaturk who was President of modern state of Turkey o popular sovereignty o Ataturk secularized the government of Turkey • the clergy had come to play a very important role in Iran on social, gov, and economic levels • when clergy heard that Reza would want to push clergy out just like Turkey, they were concerned •  Reza then decided that he would become king instead, crowned self in 1925 15 o declared end of Qajar dynasty o beginning of Pahlavi dynasty o begins the modern period of Iran 10/16/12 • Reza Khan: establish law and order in tribal areas, establish a military, establish a military draft, centralized state, o did all of this during the 4 years from the time he staged the coup and then made himself a monarch • need help in financial matters, reached out toAmericanArthur Millspaugh in 1923 • before Reza Iran had reached out to the US for help with the budget • significance of reaching out to the US: the US was not perceived as having any colonial ambitions and was thus trusted by Iranians • Millspaugh was efficient, within about 3 yrs Reza thought he had too much influence so had Millspaugh leave about 1927 • Shah continued building an administrative system •  initiated a series of reforms o modern education system-compulsory education (very modern idea)  creates possibilities to social mobility (breaks down social barriers)  is a democratizing step toward a more democratic government  primary and secondary schools in urban and rural areas  took control of education from the clergy and gave it to the state secular education  system borrowed from France  teacher training colleges are established  first university established in 1935 from various post-secondary colleges, Uni of Tehran  women allowed to be educated, so now women had the opportunity to move up in social status and go to university and be in the government  rural ppl got some benefit, the urban ppl felt it the most, reactions varied o judicial system  used to be settled by the clergy  need laws that are recognized by everyone, esp. business laws  also personal status codes: marriage, birth, etc.  secular system  judges, prosecutors, supreme court o instituted modern fashion (Reza wanted to get away from the past)  no turban, have hat instead  bold step for women b.c majority of women wore a chador (head scarf-does not cover face) • he thought this was an enslavement of women 16  Reza declared the wearing of any hijab illegal  he ordered the police to enforce this law  ppl upset! saw this as too Western, not appropriate; the progressive women liked this new rule o infrastructure  established a new railroad system • by students that studied abroad o system of health and welfare o (late 1920’s) sent groups of students to go abroad and be educated and then return to Iran  they established an entire system of railroads, bridges that go across mountains o country was industrializing  factories-state owned, transportation mechanisms,  was fashionable for the state to run the industrial things, public welfare, school system o last names and identity cards given to everyone  identity cards help with the draft, with criminal backgrounds o 1935: name change from Persia to Iran • from 1925-1951 Reza Shah was able to create a strong, industrial, modern state • downside of the reforms: o Reza Shah was a military man so he was obsessed with order and despised opposition o as the state became more and more powerful, Reza became more autocratic and less tolerant o some political dissenters were executed, dissenting intelligentsia were put in jail o as someone who has risen from such low standards he really liked having a lot of land and wealth-greedy 11/18/12 • 1941: WWII o Iran declared its neutrality o supplies for Soviet Union could not go directly through Germany and the like b/c of occupation by Hitler—used Iran and Persian Gulf o Allies did not completely trust Reza Shah to be loyal to them, thought he hadAxis sympathies • Aug of 1941 GB and Soviet’s invaded Iran • GB ordered Reza Shah to abdicate the throne and leave the country • son Mohammad Reza Shah new monarch • Iran was referred to as the “Bridge of Victory” because supplied routes to GB and USSR • Allied powers were suspicious of anyone who had a connection to Germany in Iran imprisoned • 1945:Allies won 17 o Iran’s economy was awful • challenges to the authority of the central government (separatist mvmts w/ Soviet Union backing them) o province of Azerbaijan wants autonomy o Kurdish wanted autonomy too o both groups with different languages • separatist mvmts were concerning to both the central gov and other world powers of the West (esp. GB and USA) • this tension represented the first attack/first premonitions of the Cold War o was surprising and concerning for the US, had just been allied in the war with the Soviet Union • Truman demanded that the Security Council of the UN (which had just been formed) get the Soviets out of Iran o USSR withdrew from Iran o after that Republics of Kurdish andAzeri’s fell • nature of relationship btwn Iran and US begins to change, esp. since saw attempt of Soviets to try to get in Iran, also OIL • US began an aid and development program in Iran  helped Iran to rebuild its military capabilities o US was Iran’s benefactor • increasingly US became the most important power concerning Iran • Soviet Union was also becoming more involved in Iranian affairs o bottom-up strategy o worked with unions, women’s organizations, cultural organization, workers • 1941-1953 • Mohammad Reza Shah in charge now, educated in Swiz, has US sympathies • Soviet Union helped to establish a communist party in Iran: Tudeh party (“masses”) o appealed to everyone in the country o est. 1941 o initially made up of intellectuals, o ideals: equality of men and women, privileges for working classes (8-hour day, 6d/wk, min wage) • USSR had front organizations: youth orgs, women’s orgs • Tudeh Party became the largest socialist party outside of the USSR • emergence of nationalist elements, mostly bc: o Iranian oil industry was completely operated (managed) by the British- AIOC o British gave Iran a small amount of the money o workers were Iranian o huge disparity of wealth btwn the foreigners and the Iranian workers 18 • Kinzer: argued that theAIOC was the primary source of the wealth of power of the British • nationalists wanted: o to nationalize the oil industry, did not mean to take it entirely from the British but wanted Iranian’s in top managerial position and the nation to own it • at this time Iran did not have a strong ruler, and had a loose Parliament so…free period • Oil Committee formed within the Parliament to nationalize the AIOC o this concerns shah bc it might undermine his rule o he isn’t strong enough to stop it though • Mohammad Mossadegh leader of the Oil Committee o is an old politician, aristocratic figure, but a nationalist o had been sidelined under Reza Shah o pushed the legislation through Parliament • in 1951 oil legislation passes • but…the incumbent PM refuses to carry out legislation bc the Shah and the British wouldn’t like that, maybe even theAmericans too o lots of demonstrations take place by unhappy ppl o British not going to give in o case taken to UN, British they impose embargo on the Iranian ship so any shipment of oil would be confiscated • {US involved in oil in SaudiArabic:ARAMCO} • at UN and at World Court Mossadegh prevails Mossadegh becomes a heroic figure in Iran and third world countries who were dealing with imperialism and authoritarian rulers o US sympathetic toward Iranian nationalist cause o British doesn’t care b.c still think that Iranian’s are trying to steal their company from them o US try to moderate • Mossadegh had the nation behind him but… 10/23/12 • after WWII US more concerned with preserving the independence of Iran b.c of the Soviet Union o friendly relations btwn the US and Iran o Truman initially supported the nationalization effort • various attempts by Britain to persuade the US to be fully on their side and not support nationalism • Eisenhower put a lot of trust in the Dulles brothers when it came to foreign policy o one was Sec of State o other was head of the newly established CIA 19 • unprecedented for a country to overthrown a regime in a foreign country —“regime change” • Eisenhower was not a very forceful president, simply trusted the Dulles bros to make the right decision • in early 1950s Americans concerned with communism: red scare • Senator McCarthy was the champion of this anti-communist campaign o Committee on Un-AmericanAffairs • Britain pushed the idea that nationalization of oil in Iran threatened their British interests AND that Mossadegh was a communist, or a communist sympathizer, or would eventually give in to the communists o Americans supported this second argument and thus joined the British campaign • August 1953 coup d’etat: OperationAjax o CIA played a large part in the overthrow of Mossadegh anti-American backlash spread throughout the Middle East and helped the rise of Islamic radicalism • Mossadegh was a very emotional guy when talking about the suffering of the American people • AIOC arrived in Iran in the early part of the 20 century, Britain held a monopoly of the company, only gave 16% of the profits to Iran, nationalist ideas began to spread post-WWII • when Mossadegh found out about the coup he closed down the British embassy and sent all the British back, so the British asked theAmericans for help but Truman said no b/c the CIAdidn’t do that, when Eisenhower took office the coup occurred with the leadership of Kermit Roosevelt • Kinzer insight: realized how easy it was for a rich and powerful government to cause chaos in a weak, poor country • Kermit campaign: had leaders in US and UK and the ulama say bad things about Mossadegh, military officers go to his side at the right moment, shah signed a decree to fire Mossadegh even though he didn’t have this power • this decree was to be given to Mossadegh at midnight and then arrest him, but soldiers arrested the man who was supposed to arrest Mossadegh • Kermit pushed forward! • sent rioters out into the street to pretend to be pro-Mossadegh and pro-communist and just cause chaos and destruction to make them look bad, hired another mob to attack tth first to create even more destruction and chaos • Aug 19 , 1953 brought together all his mobs and military units, Mossadegh forced to flee and then arrested, shah left when trouble began but them came back in triumph • Ibrahim:American’s knew about the oil and believed they would get some control over this oil and would not lose oil concessions in other countries o if Iran succeeded in nationalizing their oil, other countries would try to do the same 20 • Truman thought he could convince Mossadegh to give up the concept of nationalization • when it became apparent that this would not occur,Americans and the British decided that they could rid of him through the shah and the political process—but they realized this wouldn’t work b.c Mossadegh had too much popularity • so… a coup was in order o oil: was controlled by a consortium, looked on paper like Iran had the oil but British still had about 60% of the control of theAIOC (which became BP) • shah that we brought back in power became a dictator Islamic Revolution of 1979 Islamic terrorism and fanaticism • the coup sent a message that the US prefers dictatorship that US could get more of what they want from the region (in this case oil), not that we want democracy • for Americans the ‘53 coup was not really something that they were aware of • the US Embassy Hostage crisis (1979-1981) was portrayed in the US as crazy ppl calling for death toAmerica o never was the 1953 coup brought up • Shah was very weak, wanted to be a ruler not just a ceremonial position, he needed help getting rid of Mossadegh • CIAplayed on the fact that the communist backed Tudeh party began to support Mossadegh 10/25/12 • Iran Embassy Hostage crisis: Iranians afraid the CIA operatives in theAmerican Embassy would bring back the shah to Iran again like they had done in 1953— Iranians wanted to prevent that so this crisis happened • Kinzer based a lot of his book on the research of Mark Gasiorowski • was Kermit Roosevelt really a puppeteer of
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