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Boston College
THEO 1016

April 8, 2014 Martin Luther: Protestant Reformation I. Historical Overview th th a. High MiddleAges (11 - 13 c.) i. Huge population increase ii. Time of power for Roman Catholic Church iii. Holy Roman Empire iv. Early Crusades v. Rise of Universities and Scholasticism b. Late MiddleAges (13 -15 c.) th i. Black Death and Famine leads to decline in population and economic chaos ii. Decline of Holy Roman Empire and rise of nationalism iii. Unity of Catholic Church shattered by Western Schism iv. Rise of a merchant class and bourgeoisie (leads to class mobility) v. Invention of printing press (increase in literacy) vi. Renaissance Humanism vii. Christian Reform Movements 1. Franciscans (1215): Mobile Preachers 2. Dominicans (1217): Mobile Preachers 3. John Wycliffe (1320): Theologian 4. Jan Hus (1373-1415): Theologian a. Both these Theologians want to reform Christianity back to the gospel i. Anti clerical in that they dislike their attitude ii. Want to return to scripture c. Protestant Reformation resulted from an age of reform in Western Christianity II. Martin Luther (1483-1546) a. Augustinian monk and priest, learned b. Sent to study theology of grace i. Thomistic Theology 1. Gracious infusion of grace in structure of human nature 2. Moral cooperation: doing ones best with grace 3. Rewarded with eternal life as a just due ii. Medieval Nominalist • Though we are sinful, the fall hasn’t destroyed free will, we can still use free will to do good works freely • Church eventually said that yes, all are sinful, but one may buy an i
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