Lecture 4 (PE 32).docx

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University of California - Berkeley
Physical Education
Sue Johannessen

Lecture 4: Muscular Strength: usually assessed by measuring the maximum amount of weight a person can lift one time. e.g. taking 1 RM for the bench press Muscular Endurance: usually assessed by counting the maximum number of repetitions of a muscular contraction a person can do (e.g. push-ups) or the maximum amount of time a person can hold a muscular contraction. e.g. curl-up test, push-up test, squat endurance test Benefits of Muscular Strength and Endurance:  Improved performance of physical activities  Injury prevention  Improved body composition  Enhanced self-image and quality of life  Improved muscle and bone health with aging  Prevention of chronic disease Skeletal Muscle Tissue  muscle  fascicle (bundle of fibers)  muscle fiber (all)  myofibril  Sarcomere – basic unit of muscle; composed of long, fibrous proteins that slide past each other when the muscles contract and relax o Protein filaments o Sliding filaments o Theory: filaments slide and contract when energy is used  Myosin and Actin o Muscle proteins responsible for elastic and contractile properties of muscle Basic Muscle Physiology  Hypertrophy: larger size of individual muscle fiber (via lifting, working out)  Atrophy: muscle gets small and shriveled Slow Twitch (endurance athletes) vs. Fast Twitch (sprinters)  Slow Twitch o Resist fatigue o Don’t contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast twitch fibers o Rely primarily on the aerobic energy system  Fast Twitch o Fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers o Contract rapidly and forcefully o Rely more on the anaerobic energy system Typical Muscle Fiber Composition in Elite Athletes % Slow Fibers % Fast Fibers Sport Type I Types IIx and IIa Distance Runners 70-80 20-30 Track Sprinters 25-30 70-75 Nonathletes 47-53
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